Intensified migration cooperation with Morocco led to a significant decrease in the number of people reaching Spain by sea and via Spanish enclaves Ceuta and Melilla. A law allowing border guards to summarily return migrants from enclaves to Morocco remained unchanged despite international criticism. The Supreme Court convicted 9 pro-independence Catalan politicians and activists of sedition and sentenced them to between 9 and 13 years for non-violent acts in connection with the 2017 referendum on independence, previously deemed illegal by Spanish courts. Outdated criminal provisions relating to sexual violence remain despite outrage over several men accused of gang rape being convicted on lesser charges.

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