"Beat Him, Take Everything Away"

Abuses by China’s Chengguan Para-Police

Summary

One October morning in 2010, four Beijing “Urban Management” officers, or chengguan ( 城管 ), stopped their car next to the cart of Wang Ren (not her real name), a 32-year-old migrant from Henan province, who was selling grapes. Wang told Human Rights Watch that three of the chengguan officers got onto Wang’s cart and without explanation began confiscating her grapes. When Wang protested, they began kicking her. They then threw her from her cart into the road. While they kicked her, they cursed her, saying “Fxxx your mother. You dare ask us for a reason?” After Wang was tossed from her cart, the fourth chengguan officer, who had silently stood by during the beating, interceded and instructed her three colleagues to stop beating Wang. The chengguan officers confiscated Wang’s grapes and departed. Wang was left with deep bruising from the attack. [1]

Since its founding in 1997, China’s Chengguan Urban Management Law Enforcement ( 城管执法 ), a para-police agency tasked with enforcing non-criminal urban administrative regulations, has earned a reputation for excessive force and impunity. The chengguan have become synonymous among some Chinese citizens with arbitrary and thuggish behavior including assaults on suspected administrative law violators (some of which lead to serious injury or death), illegal detention, and abuses accompanying forceful confiscation of property.

This report provides an overview of the creation and development of chengguan units over the past 15 years, details recent cases of abuse, and sets forth recommendations for ending the abuses.

In important respects, the concerns highlighted here are illustrative of problems plaguing law enforcement in China more generally: abusive behavior that often goes unpunished, failure to uphold the principle “innocent until proven guilty,” unclear legal regulation, and an obdurate bureaucracy intent on protecting itself. While China allows media coverage of chengguan abuses, regular police on some occasions intervene to protect victims, and there have been some efforts at reform, the problems persist and merit the attention of both Chinese leaders and concerned international actors.

The findings here are based on Human Rights Watch interviews with victims of chengguan abuse and other research in six Chinese cities between mid-2009 and 2011 as well as analysis of Chinese-language sources, including laws, regulations, and academic articles, and review of other published reports of chengguan abuses. An appendix provides details of more than 150 cases of chengguan abuses reported in Chinese national and local media between July 2010 and March 2012.

Victims of chengguan abuse interviewed by Human Rights Watch told us they were slapped, shoved, pushed to the ground, forcibly held down on the ground, dragged, punched, kicked, and thrown from their vehicles to the street. Many of those with whom Human Rights Watch spoke were street vendors, whose status as internal migrants puts them at particular risk of abuse.

Although chengguan personnel have no legal authority to detain suspects, several interviewees said they were detained by them. Some said they suffered physical abuses while detained or while resisting being detained. Many street vendors told us their vehicles and merchandise were confiscated. In some instances, chengguan officers conditioned the return of confiscated belongings on payment of seemingly arbitrary fines, spurring popular speculation of corruption by chengguan authorities.

Chengguan have also been implicated in abusive forced evictions of residents from their homes at a time when alleged collusion between corrupt officials and property developers has created what a Chinese human rights organization has described as a “pandemic of illegal demolition” in China. Chinese journalists who attempt to report on chengguan abuses have also been targeted with illegal detention and physical violence by chengguan.

The report builds on Human Rights Watch work published over the past five years documenting violations by Chinese police and other public security forces, including enforced disappearances, abuses in detention, torture to gain information and confessions, and lack of due process in police investigations and judicial proceedings. And while the Chinese government has launched legal reform initiatives aimed at reducing police abuses, the chengguan, as a non-criminal law enforcement organ, has not yet been the target of such initiatives. Despite criticism of chengguan abuses by the Chinese public, state media, lawyers, and legal scholars, the Chinese government has failed to develop effective mechanisms to prevent abuses and punish perpetrators.

China’s first chengguan unit began operating on an experimental basis in Beijing in 1997 following passage of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Administrative Penalty (hereafter, “Administrative Penalties Law”). That law gave municipalities authority to create a new mechanism for enforcing non-criminal municipal regulations and imposing fines on violators. The impetus for the chengguan’s founding included both official frustration with the effectiveness of existing administrative enforcement mechanisms and government concern about the emergence of new perceived threats to social stability in the late 1990s.

The Administrative Penalties Law permits provincial, autonomous region, and municipal governments to transfer law-enforcement duties for relatively minor infractions in areas such as traffic control, environmental regulation, and city beautification from existing municipal departments to new units tasked specifically with such duties. In response, a total of 308 Chinese municipalities formed chengguan units by the end of 2005. Beijing’s ranks of chengguan officers grew from just over 100 in 1997 to 6,200 by July 2010. Chengguan responsibilities also grew exponentially in that period. Beijing’s chengguan currently have legal enforcement power over more than 300 different infractions, extending to “almost every aspect of city residents’ lives.” [2]

In principle, chengguan can be criminally prosecuted for abuses of power under existing Chinese law, but such charges are rarely brought. There is no overarching national regulatory framework laying out the permissible scope of chengguan duties, no uniform training requirements or code of conduct, and no systematic monitoring and investigation of alleged chengguan abuses. Ad hoc, localized regulation and control of chengguan has in at least one case resulted in a city government explicitly training its chengguan to avoid visible signs of abuse when dealing with suspects, implicitly authorizing their mistreatment: a Beijing chengguan training manual circulated online in April 2009 stipulates that in the course of enforcement operations, chengguan should, “In dealing with the subject, take care to leave no blood on the face, no wounds on the body, and [ensure that] no people [are] in the vicinity.” [3]

Concerns about chengguan excesses have prompted calls for reform from Chinese legal experts and scholars, with proposed remedies ranging from new, stringent laws on chengguan operations and conduct, to outright abolition of the units and transfer of their duties to China’s Public Security Bureau (police). Some municipalities have responded to criticism of chengguan abuses by imposing limitations on chengguan powers. Those limitations have in some cities included explicit prohibitions on chengguan use of “excessive force” in the discharge of their duties. However, other cities have focused on more cosmetic approaches to public criticism of chengguan abuses; one notable example is Chengdu city officials’ trumpeting as evidence of reform their creation of special female chengguan units who carry out their duties on roller-skates.

Senior Chinese government officials regularly speak of their commitment to the rule of law and their respect for people’s human rights. A 2004 constitutional amendment reads, “The state respects and preserves human rights.” [4] Yet China’s state media continue to report on troubling instances of violent behavior by chengguan officers and physical confrontations between chengguan and street vendors on a near-weekly basis. A Google search for Chinese-language references to chengguan produces literally millions of entries for “chengguan beat people” ( 城管打人 ). Public resentment of chengguan abuses and the apparent impunity these forces enjoy have fueled a number of violent protests. Allowing these forces to continue to operate with impunity is likely to fuel greater public resentment leading to more violent confrontations.

Recommendations

To the Government of the People’s Republic of China

  • China’s leadership should publicly and unambiguously condemn chengguan assaults on and illegal detention of suspected administrative law violators, emphasizing that such malfeasance is illegal and announcing new measures to ensure rigorous investigation and, where appropriate, prosecution of chengguan officers believed responsible for such acts.
  • The leadership should also establish an independent commission which includes representatives of the Public Security Bureau, the Chinese Communist Party’s Political Legal Committee, and academics and lawyers familiar with problems in the regulation and operations of chengguan to assess chengguan performance and suggest further reforms. The merits and demerits of replacing the chengguan system with other mechanisms of urban administrative law enforcement should be among the topics addressed.
  • The Ministry of Public Security (MPS) should consider creating an independent investigatory taskforce with the resources necessary to investigate and bring to account Public Security Bureau personnel complicit in chengguan abuses in Beijing and other cities.
  • The State Council’s Information Office should ensure that chengguan abuses are among the issues addressed in the government’s pending National Human Rights Action Plan (2012-2015).[5]

To the Public Security Bureau

  • The PSB should create a special unit dedicated to investigating criminal abuses perpetrated by chengguan officers. This special police unit should be given legal authority to conduct spot-checks on chengguan operations and have capacity to respond to reports of chengguan abuses whenever and wherever they occur. The authority of the police to intervene to halt chengguan abuses, however, should be general and not limited to a special unit.
  • The PSB should create 24-hour telephone and internet hotlines for victims of chengguan abuses to report misconduct to the new police unit.
  • The PSB should ensure that all victims of chengguan abuses receive appropriate medical and legal assistance and compensation for their losses.
  • The PSB should also initiate a mass public education campaign on the legal rights of street vendors, including their right not to be physically abused or illegally detained by chengguan officers, even when they lack vending permits. Campaign targets should include police, chengguan, and all public security forces, reminding them of their obligations to protect the rights of all persons, including street vendors, and the potentially severe legal penalties that abuse of those rights entails.

To Provincial, Autonomous Region, and Municipal Governments in China with Chengguan Enforcement Organs

  • Publicly and unambiguously condemn chengguan assaults on and illegal detention of suspected administrative law violators, emphasizing that such malfeasance is illegal and announcing new measures to ensure rigorous investigation and, where appropriate, prosecution of chengguan officers believed responsible for such acts.
  • Educate chengguan officers in the rights of all people, including street vendors, and the potentially severe legal penalties that abuse of those rights entails. Ensure that all chengguan training includes components on human rights and the illegality of torture, assault, illegal detention, and extortion.
  • Review personnel records of existing chengguan officers and ensure that any who have been implicated in illegal detention, assault, or other abuses are suspended from active duty while allegations against them are fully investigated. In cases where there is evidence of potentially criminal conduct, records should be shared with police to facilitate investigation and possible criminal prosecution.

To Governments and International Bodies Funding Chinese Legal Reform or Concerned with Human Rights in China, including the United States, the European Union, the United Nations, the World Bank, and the Asian Development Bank

  • Express strong concerns to Chinese officials about chengguan abuses, emphasizing that those abuses violate both Chinese and international law, that perpetrators should be punished, and that victims should be provided with reasonable compensation.
  • Raise chengguan abuses with Chinese authorities in legal reform and security sector training programs, including relevant educational initiatives.

Methodology

Human Rights Watch conducted research on human rights abuses by chengguan authorities in the municipalities of Beijing, Shenyang, Huangshan, Kunming, Nanjing, and Qingdao from mid-2009 through 2011.Those municipalities were selected in part because state media reports of chengguan-related violence were most common in those cities.

The Chinese government does not allow independent, impartial organizations to freely conduct research or monitor human rights, particularly research related to the operations of the nation’s security forces. As a result, conducting interviews and gathering credible information presents formidable challenges. Our research thus required a high level of sensitivity to the security of both researchers and interviewees. We conducted interviews only in circumstances in which they could be carried out without surveillance and possible harassment of government officials or security forces.

In all, we interviewed 25 men and women of varying socio-economic backgrounds who had been victims of chengguan abuses. The majority were street vendors and many of them reported that they had witnessed chengguan abuse of other street vendors. We also interviewed an individual whose family members were beaten by chengguan officers in the course of the forced eviction and demolition of their home and a Chinese journalist who told Human Rights Watch how he was beaten by a baton-wielding chengguan officer while covering a public protest.

Interviews were conducted in Chinese and no incentives were offered or provided to persons interviewed. All participants provided oral informed consent to participate and were assured anonymity. Because of a very real possibility of reprisals, we have withheld the names of all of the chengguan victims we spoke with and used pseudonyms in describing their cases.

The report also draws on Chinese academic research, including the 2008 The Newest Essential Manual for Chengguan Grassroots Work by China Land Press and a study by the organization Chinese Human Rights Defenders. The report also uses accounts published in the Chinese state media, including the China Youth Daily, Beijing News, and the People’s Daily, and in international media, including the Wall Street Journal, Time magazine, and Singapore’s Straits Times. Many of these reports describe chengguan violence and impunity and suggest that chengguan abuses take place across the country.

Our findings are consistent with research published in 2011 by Chinese Human Rights Defenders, a Chinese and international nongovernmental group that focuses on exposing human rights abuses and promoting human rights capacity building and advocacy. [6]

In April 2012 Human Rights Watch sent letters to the Public Security Bureau and the Chinese Communist Party’s Political and Legislative Committee detailing the findings and recommendations of this report and asking what actions they were taking or would consider taking to address the concerns raised here. Copies of those letters can be found in an appendix to this report. At the time this report went to press, Human Rights Watch had not received any replies to our letters.

I. Background

Chengguan Origin and Legal Basis

The legal basis for the creation of the chengguan is the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Administrative Penalty (hereafter, Administrative Penalties Law), passed in March 1996. [7] That law did not specifically call for the creation of the chengguan, nor did it use that term. Instead, the law empowered provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities to “entrust an organization … with imposing administrative penalties” regarding matters falling outside the realm of criminal law and the authority of the Public Security Bureau (China’s police). [8] Over the next six years, China’s State Council, or cabinet, issued a total of four directives which echoed and amplified the objectives of the Administrative Penalties Law. [9]

The goals of the Chinese government appear to have been streamlining enforcement of local administrative regulations which were traditionally the responsibility of multiple local government departments, [10] minimizing opportunities for corruption and abuse of power, and better controlling public unrest.

According to Professor Jin Guokun of the Beijing Municipal School of Administration, the government’s intention was to require local municipalities to establish “a comprehensive department for administrative enforcements instead of various departments which were previously responsible” on the rationale that “one department is always better than 10 departments handling the same issue.” [11] That multi-department approach to administrative law enforcement had also created abuses of power that the central government described in its 1996 Administrative Punishments Circular as part of the motivation to create a new administrative enforcement entity free of such defects.

Some persons in the administrative law-enforcing contingent are low quality at present. Some of them abuse power for personal gain, refusing to provide service without personal gain or misusing power just for personal gain. Some of them even pervert justice for bribes and break the criminal law. Some localities and departments employ contract or temporary workers to carry out the work of law enforcement without necessary funds and other necessary conditions, resulting in a decline in the general quality of the law-enforcement personnel and damage to the image of the government. All localities and departments must pay close attention to that problem, regard the building of an efficient and honest and clean law-enforcing contingent as the key point in implementing the Law on Administrative Penalty.[12]

The chengguan’s emergence also reflected official concern about potentially destabilizing socioeconomic changes underway in Chinese cities. Policymakers perceived the rising numbers of laid-off or xia-gang ( 下岗 ) [13] state-owned enterprise employees and the growing population of migrant workers from China’s countryside coming to the cities in search of work in the late 1990s as potential threats to law and order. [14] Those changes in China’s urban population mix overwhelmed the Chinese government’s existing urban social control mechanism, the danwei ( 单位 ) or work unit, and prompted policymakers to create a replacement, said Chinese Academy of Social Sciences scholar Zhou Hanhua.

Originally [urban social control] issues were handled by the danwei (单位), the work unit, to which Chinese employees were once closely bound. The danwei … prevented people from engaging in [commercial] enterprises on the side. The decline of China’s state-owned enterprises in the 1990s precipitated the breakdown of the danwei system. At the same time, the country grew increasingly urbanized and millions of migrant workers poured into the cities. The traditional [urban social control] system could no longer manage [so] the chengguan were established to handle the problems of the urban environment.[15]

The Administrative Penalties Law outlines the powers of unspecified “administrative organs” [16] to impose administrative penalties which range from “disciplinary warnings,” “fines,” and “suspension of businesses” to “confiscation of illegal gains or … unlawful property.” [17] The law also seems designed to create a non-punitive law enforcement ethos, with explicit calls for penalties to be “combined with education” [18] and to reflect “the principles of fairness and openness,” [19] and it acknowledges the right of alleged violators to legally challenge administrative penalties and seek compensation. [20] The Administrative Penalties Law also requires that administrative regulation enforcers obey a code of conduct which, among other things, requires that they identify themselves to alleged administrative rule violators [21] and inform them of the relevant violation [22] and their right to a legal defense. [23] According to the Newest Essential Manual for Chengguan Grassroots Work, an academic publication, those principles and legal guarantees are routinely flouted.

In reality, chengguan law enforcement personnel do not produce their credentials, they confiscate goods illegally, they don’t follow legal process in carrying out their duties to inform. They don’t follow rules for a [legal] hearing either, [so] unfair law enforcement and illegal processes according to the Law of the Peoples Republic of China on Administrative Penalty occur repeatedly and are nothing new.[24]

The Administrative Penalties Law does not specify the scope of chengguan enforcement powers. It was not until August 2002 that the central government published a directive outlining eight specific areas of administrative law— ranging from environmental sanitation and traffic regulations to urban beautification rules [25] —that provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities may delegate to chengguan. But even that directive does not specify permissible and prohibited means of enforcement, or set forth rules to guide the deportment and accountability of relevant enforcement personnel.

The Administrative Penalties Law lacunae have raised persistent concerns among lawyers and legal scholars about the chengguan’s fundamental legality. [26] “The legitimacy issue is at the core of all complaints targeted at the chengguan [because] there is no official document stipulating its status as a law enforcer.” [27] Beijing lawyer Hao Jinsun has argued that there is “no law or executive order formally sanctioning the existence of the [chengguan]. Its powers have simply been conferred by some municipal government departments and this is illegal.” [28] A November 2011 report by the nongovernmental organization Chinese Human Rights Defenders argued that the chengguan’s ambiguous legal basis facilitates “violence, brutality, law-breaking, corruption and human rights abuses” by chengguan personnel. [29]

A 2007 review of academic research on chengguan duties and powers noted that in some jurisdictions chengguan have “14 functions and more than 300 kinds of power, none of which, however, is endowed by law … [instead, chengguan functions and powers are adapted] from those of industry and commerce administrations and public security bureaus.”[30] The human rights lawyer and legal scholar Teng Biao has asserted that the ambiguities of the Administrative Penalties Law fatally undermine its legal legitimacy:

Since 1997 when the chengguan came into being … until now there is no national “Chengguan Management Law” or administrative regulations [so] chengguan “law enforcement” has no legal basis. A lack of uniformity and standardization of [chengguan] law enforcement, lack of lead [regulatory] agency and the absence of legal supervision has jeopardized the authority of public security.[31]

To remedy that ambiguity and to give the chengguan a firmer legal foundation with clear duties and transparent lines of control and command, the Standing Committee of China’s parliament, the National People’s Congress, approved the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Administrative Enforcement (hereafter, Administrative Enforcement Law) on June 30, 2011, [32] after six years of deliberation. [33] Peking University Professor Jiang Mingan described the law as a means to rectify inadequacies in the Administrative Penalty Law which “is too ambiguous and not good enough in terms of checking and balancing the power of [chengguan].” [34]

As with every other law and government directive governing the operations of the chengguan, the Administrative Enforcement Law, which came into effect on January 1, 2012, does not mention the chengguan by name but instead refers to “administrative organs.” [35] Numerous specific articles of the law, however, define and clarify duties of “administrative enforcement” [36] and “administrative compulsion” [37] in an apparent effort to prevent chengguan abuses. [38] They include the prioritization of “non-compulsory” enforcement measures [39] and limitations on the power of administrative organs to seize and confiscate property. [40] The law also stipulates a procedure for when and how administrative organs may use “compulsion,” a provision which appears designed to prevent chengguan abuses against members of the public. [41] The law also prohibits administrative organs such as the chengguan from conducting administrative enforcement actions they are not empowered by law to conduct [42] and reinforces the existing ban on administrative detention of suspects by chengguan. [43]

A July 5, 2011 assessment of the Administrative Enforcement Law by the Beijing-based legal firm Lehman, Lee and Xu LLP described the law as an advance in Chinese government efforts to “curb the abuse of administrative powers” while providing “protection of the rights of citizens and entities.” [44] But commentary on the law by Chinese sources has been mixed. A February 9, 2012, statement by the Urban Management Administrative Law Enforcement Bureau in Huai’an, Jiangsu province, praises the law for having a “pronounced impact on urban management and law enforcement” through the implementation of “more stringent administrative enforcement provisions.” [45]

A February 9, 2012 editorial in the Economic Information Daily, however, casts doubt on its impact. The editorial describes an incident in Harbin in which chengguan confiscated a swing which had hung at the door of a senior citizen’s residence. [46] The editorial argues the confiscation violates the Administrative Enforcement Law criteria for such seizure because the chengguan did not produce law enforcement identity documents, did not give legal reasons for the confiscation, and did not notify the affected citizens of their legal rights. [47]

Despite the confusion surrounding the chengguan’s responsibilities and chain of command, their numbers have grown considerably. The first chengguan detachment began operations on a trial basis in Beijing’s Xuanwu district in May 1997. By September 2000, chengguan enforcement operations had expanded under the direction and regulation of individual municipalities to a total of 65 cities. By the end of 2005, 308 Chinese cities had created chengguan detachments out of a total of 656 cities nationwide. Beijing’s ranks of chengguan officers grew from just over 100 in 1997 to 6,200 in July 2010.

Duties and Training

Individual municipalities define the duties and powers of their chengguan units. According to a Chinese academic study of chengguan operations, “Provincial, autonomous region and municipal governments decide the [scope of] chengguan law enforcement rights … [this has led directly] to local governments allowing chengguan duties to excessively affect [citizens] rights and has led to the limitless expansion of chengguan scope of duties.” [48]

Chengguan duties can extend to enforcement of municipal government property eviction and demolition orders. These actions frequently involve angry or violent protests between enforcement personnel and aggrieved property owners, situations more appropriate for better trained and qualified police officers. [49]

Beijing regulations, which other municipalities have adopted as a model, give chengguan enforcement powers in 14 areas and stipulate 300 sub-categories of violations for which chengguan have the power to impose punishment, including a catch-all “other administrative punishments” category. [50] In the area of hygiene, for example, the regulations give chengguan authority to ensure the quality of restaurants’ cooking oil, [51] while in the public utilities area they provide that the chengguan are to ensure the safety of the city’s gas pipelines. [52] During the 2008 Beijing Olympics, the municipal government mobilized more than 5,000 chengguan officers to assist with ensuring good air quality during the games. [53] In Yantai city in Shandong province, the municipality has empowered local chengguan with vague “emergency” law enforcement powers. [54] Those responsibilities have allowed for extremely wide interpretation and application which have been criticized for “covering almost every aspect of city residents’ lives … [and] the vital interests of the people.” [55]

Both the Administrative Penalties Law and the Circular of the State Council Regarding the Implementation of Administrative Punishments stipulate educational and training qualifications for chengguan officers. [56] However, numerous legal scholars, lawyers, and civil society activists are skeptical about the implementation of those standards. Certain municipalities employ chengguan officers who have not even graduated from high school. [57]

Yao Lifa, a democracy activist and former municipal People’s Congress representative in Qianjiang city in Hubei province, blames the education and skill deficit of many chengguan on the common municipal practice of hiring demobilized soldiers untrained in administrative law enforcement as chengguan. [58] A Nanjing chengguan officer in May 2010 cited “lack of proper training” for frequent incidents of violence involving chengguan officers. [59] “We don’t have enough training to effectively enforce law with manners. We are too often told about the dos and don’ts, but seldom how to work properly.” [60]

The training that chengguan do receive has fueled concerns about chengguan commitment to the rights and safety of Chinese citizens. In April 2009, contents of the Beijing Municipal Bureau of City Administration’s Law Enforcement Training Manual were leaked onto the internet. Sections of the book, described in the preface as China’s “first professional guide to practical city administration enforcement” reportedly suggested the application of violence against citizens in the course of enforcement actions. [61] Among them were instructions for surreptitious violence against perceived rule-breakers: “In dealing with the subject, take care to leave no blood on the face, no wounds on the body, and [ensure that] no people [are] in the vicinity.” [62]

Chengguan and Street Vendors

Media reports and interviews by Human Rights Watch suggest that street vendors constitute a large proportion of the victims of chengguan violence. Xie Zhikui, deputy director of the Institute for Social Development at the Shenzhen Academy of Social Sciences, attributes the lack of formal employment opportunities for rural migrants in China’s cities to their participation in the “informal economy” of street vending. [63] Street vending is illegal in most of China’s cities outside of designated outdoor market areas where vendors require government-issued permits. [64] Those restrictions are widely ignored, bringing vendors into conflict with chengguan officers tasked to keep streets, sidewalks, footbridges, and pedestrian underpasses free of illegal vendors.

Street vendors rarely bother to apply for the necessary registration for legal outdoor vending and a senior chengguan official noted in 2008 that municipal governments lack personnel to ensure the efficient issuance of such permits. [65] However, one chengguan official defended his agency’s focus on the activities of street vendors as a response to public complaints about their effect on the areas where they operate. “Chengguan officers … respond daily to residents’ complaints against noise, fumes and pollution caused by street vendors, [even in cases where] they have no legal basis to [sanction the street vendors],” according to Luo Yameng, secretary-general of the National Joint Meeting of the Directors of all Chengguan Bureaus in the Country. [66]

The result is a perception that, “the main task of chengguan officers now is to drive away vendors from pavements and underpasses … [and] many city authorities resort to violent means to remove them.” [67] A November 2011 report by the nongovernmental organization Chinese Human Rights Defenders described chengguan “basic law enforcement methods” in controlling street vendors as including: “Confiscation of goods, kicking vendors’ stands, throwing [vendors’] goods to the ground, gang [style] beatings, triad-style [gangster-like] protection fee collection.” [68] Police statistics issued in 2009 indicate that there are 600 violent incidents annually between illegal vendors and chengguan in the city of Guangzhou alone. [69] Those statistics do not specify who provoked the violent incidents or whether injuries resulted.

A 41-year-old female street vendor, Ruan Ying, who was the victim of a chengguan beating in late July 2010 in Beijing, summarized the fear and confusion felt by vendors toward chengguan:

No reason was given [for the beating]. They never told me what crime I had committed. In fact, up to this day, I still do not know if doing this business is legal or not. We are playing a cat-and-mouse game: the chengguan officers arrive, we run. We don’t even understand why they want to arrest us.[70]

Professor Cai Dingjian of China University of Political Science and Law believes the chengguan’s enforcement focus on street vendors is misdirected and wasteful. Cai suggests that the government replace the chengguan with “a new urban service body that will be responsible for registering street peddlers, so that these self-employed people will become part of the city’s business community.” [71] Nanjing’s municipal government announced an initiative in July 2009 which would grant vending permits for designated areas to 10,000 low-income earners. [72] However, that initiative was limited to citizens with Nanjing household registration, or hukou permits, [73] thus disqualifying migrants who constitute the majority of China’s street vendors. [74] China’s central government was reportedly mulling a directive in 2009 which would legalize street vending “as a means creating jobs and curbing a rash of violent conflicts between the sellers and the law-enforcement officials who police them.” [75] However, no such directive has yet been issued.

Public Criticism

There are numerous expressions of public concern in China about chengguan abuses. The Wall Street Journal reported that in mid-2010 the most common Chinese-language phrase containing the term “chengguan” searched on Google was “chengguan beat people” (城管打人).[76] In numerous recent Chinese state media editorials, the chengguan have been vilified with epithets ranging from “the epitome of the evils of public power”[77] or derided as law-breaking “X-Men … with only basic means of attack such an iron stick, a piece of brick, or … only their hands.”[78] In October 2010, a very popular video game across China was one that involved the player taking the role of a street vendor tasked with having to “defeat 10 waves of attacks by the semi-official enforcers, known as chengguan”.[79] A Shenzhen chengguan official complained to the People’s Daily in October 2011 that he and his colleagues often encounter “verbal abuse, pushing and are sometimes even spat upon” in the course of their duties by members of the public.[80]

In May 2011, the Chinese government released a “Chengguan Image Analysis Report,” which attributed the organization’s poor public image to harsh online commentary which had prompted the public to “demonize” chengguan. [81] The report characterized public antipathy toward chengguan as the result of unfair “public prejudice” and “incompetent public relations.” [82] A Chinese state media English-language newspaper, the Global Times, ridiculed that assertion: “Chengguan’s notorious reputation is not the result of bad PR management, but a reflection of their real image. In the past few years, the public has witnessed too many violent acts by chengguan.” [83]

One indicator of public antipathy toward the chengguan is the rising number of protests and riots that have occurred over the past two years in response to alleged chengguan abuses. At least half a dozen such outbreaks of public violence have been reported since 2009, with several involving thousands of protesters who have attacked chengguan and police and damaged chengguan vehicles. Those outbreaks of violence prompted Asia Monitor, an Asia-based risk consultancy firm, to draw parallels in July 2011 between chengguan-related unrest in China and the protests which presaged the popular uprisings in Tunisia, Egypt, and Libya in early 2011. [84]

In the most recent reported public protest over alleged chengguan malfeasance, a large crowd in Qianxi, Guizhou province, overturned, burned, and smashed 10 chengguan vehicles before dispersing on August 11, 2011, in protest of chengguan operations against alleged illegal parking. [85] A similar protested erupted in Anshun in Guizhou province on July 26, 2011, in response to reports that local chengguan had beaten a disabled fruit vendor to death. [86] The crowd clashed briefly with city authorities before eventually dispersing. [87] Those two incidents prompted criticism of chengguan law enforcement methods at a meeting of Guizhou’s standing committee of the provincial Chinese Communist Party on August 14, 2011. [88] Party cadre at the meeting attributed those incidents to inadequacies in Guizhou chengguan enforcement methods. [89]

[Guizhou chengguan are] low in law enforcement qualities; employ outdated law enforcement style; lack surveillance and supervision regarding the way they enforce the law; fail to enforce the law with civility, impartiality, sensitivity, and a service-oriented and humanized attitude; and fail to adopt a low-key approach, respect the masses, or exercise patience and persuasion while enforcing the law. [90]

Reform Efforts

On January 1, 2012, the Chinese government implemented the Administrative Enforcement Law,[91] which the government describes as a means to improve supervision of “administrative organs.”[92] The law makes no specific mention of the chengguan but certain sections stipulate that “administrative organs” have the right and duty to suspend enforcement of administrative regulations if enforcement risks “irreparable damage”[93] and specifies restitution or compensation for people affected by errors in administrative regulation enforcement.[94] That regulation appears designed to curb chengguan abuses and to provide legal redress for people who are victims of such abuse. It is not yet clear whether the Administrative Enforcement Law is having a substantive impact on curbing chengguan abuses.

Some municipal governments have responded to public concerns about abuses by chengguan with various measures aimed at mitigating or preventing abuses and boosting public confidence in chengguan operations. In May 2007, the Beijing municipal government issued new guidelines that prohibited “rude or barbaric methods of law enforcement,” [95] while in September 2009 the Guangzhou municipal government implemented rules emphasizing non-violent “persuasion” in chengguan performance of their duties. [96] The Nanjing municipal government in May 2010 prohibited chengguan personnel from drinking alcohol on duty and using “excessive force” in the course of their duties. [97]

In 2010, a summer training course at Tsinghua University in Beijing in Confucianism, Taoism, and Legalism for 80 senior chengguan officials aimed to improve the organization’s “comprehensive set of qualities.” [98] The Chengdu municipal government’s approach to addressing chengguan shortcomings included hiring special units of female chengguan officers to patrol the city on roller-skates as a reflection of “a more moderate approach to law enforcement.” [99] There is no publicly available research indicating whether these efforts have been effective in reducing violence and other abuses by chengguan authorities in these cities.

II. Chengguan Abuses

[The chengguan officers] verbally abused me and beat me. They said that sale of vegetables on the street is not allowed and this is a regulation. I was beaten up. They hit me in the head and face and my nose was bleeding. They punched me in the face until my face was swollen. [100]

Excessive Force and Torture

Individuals targeted by chengguan efforts are often subjected to physical violence that appears to be gratuitous or excessive in light of the circumstances. Seventeen of the 25 persons we interviewed who experienced violence at the hands of the chengguan reported having been beaten or otherwise physically abused. The violence, often inflicted in view of multiple eyewitnesses, included being slapped, shoved, pushed to the ground, forcibly held down on the ground, dragged, punched, kicked, and thrown from vehicles to the street. Those beatings resulted in injuries ranging from bruises, cuts, and bloody noses to broken bones.

Many of the persons interviewed by Human Rights Watch said that chengguan officials were extremely aggressive and uncommunicative while conducting enforcement operations. This account by Ma Lijun of an encounter between fruit vendors and chengguan in the city of Qingdao in Shandong province on September 21, 2009, is illustrative:

We sell our goods beside a supermarket. On the day of the incident, more than 10 people came out of the supermarket to tell us that we weren’t allowed to sell our goods there. We disagreed, and the supermarket staff overturned the fruit stall. The supermarket [staff] rang up the chengguan office. Six chengguan officers arrived, with a chengguan supervisor hurling verbal abuse while getting out of the car. They were swearing the minute they got out of their vehicles [and] they kicked me. Our staff member holding a camera [filming the incident] is a young girl, but [the chengguan officers] surrounded her, held her down, and kicked her. [101]

Street vendors are not the only victims of excessive force by chengguan. Journalists who attempt to report on such incidents have been beaten by chengguan officers objecting to media coverage of their activities. A group of chengguan forcibly dragged away and beat a reporter for Ningxia’s New News on the morning of July 7, 2007, while the journalist was trying to interview a local chengguan official. [102] The official was subsequently suspended for an unspecified period of time. [103] On March 17, 2009, a group of seven to eight chengguan officers attacked a journalist while he was filming the scene of a traffic accident in Changsha, Hunan province, with his mobile phone camera. The journalist’s wrist was injured when the chengguan officers forcibly confiscated his phone and his wrist later required medical treatment. [104]

The account of journalist Zhang Wei, beaten by chengguan officers on March 26, 2010, in Kunming, Yunnan province, further highlights the risks faced by reporters who cover chengguan-related incidents:

A hawker had been beaten up. A conflict had erupted between the chengguan officers and the hawkers. After the officers hit the man, a crowd surrounded [them], refusing to let them leave. I was about to interview a little girl who was sitting on the ground crying, when [the chengguan] came up to me claiming that I had crossed the police cordon. About six [chengguan] used their plastic batons to hit me, and they kicked me, too. They ignored me completely when I said I was a reporter. Even when my colleague went up to them to prove [my identify using] his identification, they still refused to listen. Although there were police officers on the scene, they did not stop the chengguan officers.[105]

Chengguan officers have also used excessive force in forcible eviction operations and demolitions. Reports of such violence are common in state media coverage of such operations. Kunming policeman Zhang Jingren, for example, was beaten by chengguan when he resisted a December 22, 2010 operation to demolish an illegally enclosed balcony in his home. According to a local news report, “[m]ore than 20 [chengguan] officers knocked Zhang to the ground and beat him with batons,” [106] breaking his right leg so badly that required surgery. Authorities announced an investigation into the attack but the results have not yet been made public. [107]

Zhang’s experience echoes that of Lin Ping, a 32-year-old woman in Huangshan, Anhui province, who told Human Rights Watch that her grandmother was injured in the course of a chengguan operation to evict her family from their home in the early morning hours of April 20, 2008.

My grandmother and parents came out when they were about to start demolishing. There were 300-400 chengguan officers. The officers hit and verbally abused my grandmother. My family tried to obstruct them when they came. We asked what authority they had for demolishing our house. But there were so many of them, how was it possible for us to stop them? The police were unable to apprehend [the chengguan officers who injured my grandmother], so the manager of the demolition company undertook compensation. Chengguan officers should be the poster children for civil and orderly governance. Why did they do this?[108]

Of the people we interviewed who complained about chengguan actions, most said that the chengguan, who commonly work in teams of up to six individuals, [109] provided little or no legal justification or information about what regulations they were enforcing. That failure to inform is a violation of their obligations under both the Administrative Penalties Law and Administrative Enforcement Law. [110]

Tian Ying, a street vendor beaten by chengguan officers in Shenyang in mid-2007, told Human Rights Watch that she was given no explanation for their actions. “They did not explain [the violation] to me. They would not even talk to you, but just dash up to seize your goods.” [111] Cui Aiping, a migrant street vendor from Henan province who sells beef kebabs in Beijing, said that the chengguan who assaulted him in July 2010 likewise failed to provide any legal justification for their actions. “No reason was given. They never told me what crime I had committed. In fact, up to this day, I still do not know if doing this business is legal or not.” [112]

In encounters that turn violent, chengguan themselves sometimes become the victims. Our research turned up four cases in which chengguan were killed in the course of their duties in recent years.

In 2006, a Beijing street vendor named Cui Yingjie stabbed a chengguan officer, Lu Zhiqiang, during a scuffle while Lu was attempting to confiscate Cui’s cart. A Beijing court subsequently sentenced Cui to the death penalty with a reprieve of two years, a sentence that often leads to eventual commuting of the death penalty. The relatively lenient sentence was due to video footage of the incident which indicated that Cui’s actions were not premeditated. In January 2010, in Shanghai, a migrant street vendor surnamed Zhang stabbed to death a chengguan officer surnamed Ju in an altercation sparked by the chengguan officer’s effort to get Zhang to stop selling at a subway station exit. The Chongqing municipal government recorded 86 incidents in 2010 in which chengguan officers were hospitalized from violence incurred in the course of their work.

In May 2011, a Shenyang court sentenced street vendor Xia Junfeng to the death penalty for the May 2009 murder of two chengguan officers who had detained him for illegal vending. Xia claimed self-defense and insisted that the chengguan officers had “beat me into a rage.” Xia’s lawyer, Teng Biao, described the two murdered chengguan officers as “victims of the urban management system.”

Professor Cai Dingjian at China University of Political Science and Law in Beijing has asserted that all chengguan use of force is unlawful: “No one is authorized to use violence in China except soldiers and police. By resorting to violence, chengguan have actually violated the law.” [113] As the cases above suggest, however, there are instances in which chengguan themselves come under serious attack and, in such cases, the use of force in self-defense may be justified. Article 20 of China’s Criminal Law permits all Chinese citizens to use force in legitimate self-defense [114] and may actually allow chengguan greater latitude than others due to their responsibility to enforce regulations aimed at protecting public health and safety. Article 20 stipulates that citizens “shall not bear criminal responsibility” in situations in which they “ stop an unlawful infringement in order to prevent the interests of the State and the public from being infringed , or his own or an other person s personal rights, property rights, or other rights from being infringe d” to the extent the use of defensive force is “necessary” rather than excessive. [115]

While the cases cited immediately above illustrate that chengguan at times face lethal threats and can be justified in using physical force in self-defense, in most of the cases we and others have investigated, chengguan have used force against alleged administrative wrongdoers not in self-defense, or even as a necessary adjunct to their duties, but excessively, as a form of punishment. Such abuses cannot be justified under article 20 or other provisions of Chinese law.

Illegal Detention

Chengguan have no legal basis to detain alleged violators of administrative regulations: the Administrative Penalty Law, which is the foundation of chengguan law enforcement powers, explicitly limits powers of detention and arrest to China’s public security organs. [116] But two of the 25 people interviewed by Human Rights Watch reported that they were illegally detained by chengguan personnel. Another two interviewees said that chengguan had attempted to detain them, but they had successfully resisted those efforts. In each of the four cases, the interviewees were beaten while detained or while attempting to resist detention. Prominent Chinese human rights lawyer Teng Biao argues that chengguan detention of suspects also violates article 238 of China’s Criminal Law, [117] a provision that makes violators liable for severe punishment. [118]

Ma Dong, who sells pancakes from a street-cart in central Beijing, told Human Rights Watch of his detention by chengguan officers in November 2009:

The chengguan officers loaded the pushcart I used for selling pancakes, my baking pan, eggs, and other belongings into their vehicle. They also pushed and dragged me into it, too. They verbally abused me while pushing me into the vehicle, and I was also knocked into the vehicle. I couldn’t get water to drink when at the [chengguan] brigade office. The chengguan officers did not explain the reason [for my detention]. They only said that peddling is not allowed here. They did not tell me how long I would be detained for. [My detention lasted] from around 10am to about 6pm, until my wife arrived. As I was leaving, the chengguan officer threatened me, saying that if he ever catches me peddling on the streets again, I will have to face heavy consequences. [119]

A Shenyang street sausage vendor, Liao Rong, told Human Rights Watch of the ordeal endured by her husband after he was detained by chengguan officers on May 16, 2009:

We had chosen to set up our stall at one end of [Shengyang’s] Nanlejiao Road. We usually chose to set up our stall … in the afternoon, because that’s when the chengguan officers would return home for lunch, so none would be on patrol. We had never run into chengguan officers before that [time]. We set out at 10:30am and arrived at the road at 10:40am. Shortly after, the chengguan officers arrived. There were four vehicles with 12 officers. They got out and wanted to confiscate our cart. After removing the cart, they held us down [on the street] and we cried “Please show us mercy, big brother. We will definitely not peddle again.” They pinned me down, beat me, and started shoving my husband, pushing against his shoulder. They surrounded us. Whenever [one of the chengguan present] came up to us he would give us a kick, or even hit us. Even passersby were yelling “Stop beating them! How inhuman of you to beat a woman!” At that time, they had dragged my husband into a [chengguan] car—I remember the sole of his shoe had fallen off. They didn’t tell me how long he would be detained for. The chengguan office is a street away from the road junction where we were selling fried sausages. [The chengguan] dragged my husband to the [chengguan] office and started asking him if he had an urban or rural hukou. A [second] chengguan officer entered the room and both of them started kicking my husband. That lasted between one and two minutes. My husband was kneeling on the floor … he never once lifted his head. [120]

The vendors decided against filing a police report or pursuing compensation for the beating due to a belief that such efforts would be ignored by the relevant authorities. “Even when such cases [of chengguan violence] are reported, the police would not come … [and chengguan] will never give compensation.” [121]

Jiang Jianguo, a 44-year-old migrant street vendor from Hebei province interviewed by Human Rights Watch, resisted chengguan efforts to detain him in central Beijing in August 2009. Although he successfully avoided detention, his resistance resulted in a beating:

I was selling watermelons. Usually no one would [bother us], the chengguan officer would drive past us several times to intimidate us, but this is merely a symbolic gesture. This time, unexpectedly, the chengguan officers drove toward us. The other vendors and hawkers with three-wheel scooters fled into an alley. But I was on a three-wheel tractor and I still had stools and tables placed around, so I wasn’t able to leave. The five or six chengguan officers who approached me were very harsh. They instructed me to follow their vehicle using my three-wheel tractor. I refused and claimed that I was waiting for someone. Before I could finish speaking, two chengguan officers flung away the cloth covering my vehicle, grabbed two watermelons, and threw them down [on the ground]. They also kicked over the tables and stools. The ground was covered in bright red watermelon bits. I scolded them, saying they were bandits robbing me. They wanted to drag me up to the chengguan vehicle but my daughter-in-law got nervous. She went to appeal to them [to release me] and then started getting into a scuffle with them. They pushed my daughter-in-law to the ground and [so] I started to fight with them, but was unable to prevail. They kicked me several times and pinned my hands behind my back as if I were a criminal. They wanted to take me to the chengguan vehicle, but I refused to get in because I’ve heard that once you get into the vehicle, they would draw the curtains and demand that you pay a fine. If you refuse to pay, they will beat you up. [122]

Jiang did not pursue any legal or compensation claims against the chengguan officers who assaulted him, believing that compared to more serious cases of the use of excessive force by chengguan, “my case can be considered trivial.” [123] Jiang expressed anger at what he perceived as the arbitrary and unchecked power of chengguan. “The chengguan officers do whatever first comes to mind. If they are feeling happy, they will let you go. If they are not feeling good, they will take out their frustrations on the vendors and hawkers.” [124]

Cai Xue, a 32-year-old street vendor from Henan province, had a similar experience when chengguan officers attempted to detain her in October 2010 while she was selling grapes from the back of a cart in central Beijing.

It was around 11:30am when they drew up in a [chengguan] vehicle. Sitting in it were four people, including a man in plainclothes. Like bandits, they just came up and made a grab for my belongings. They climbed onto the vehicle and just started grabbing without any explanation. They seized my grapes. They said it was illegal to sell on the streets. I replied saying … [that] I would not set up a stall here again. The [chengguan] team leader said that’s not permissible and wanted me to get into their vehicle. Three [chengguan officers] began to kick me, with each person taking a turn. They threw me from my vehicle into the middle of the road. My body had turned black and blue where they had kicked. Three of them kept cursing, [saying to me], “Fxxx your mother. You dare ask for a reason?” The other chengguan officer, a woman, did not utter a word. She came over because she wanted to stop them from hitting me. They did not confiscate the cart, but they seized all the grapes and threw them all around on the ground. [125]

Police eventually arrived on the scene, criticized the chengguan for “incorrect” procedures, and advised the vendor that she could sue the chengguan officers who had abused her if she was “dissatisfied with their law enforcement method.” [126] However, the police took no action to interview or detain the chengguan officers who had beaten her and destroyed her property, and subsequently allowed the chengguan officers to leave the scene without any consequences. [127] Like other victims of chengguan violence, the vendor decried their arbitrary, violent law enforcement methods. “I believe that as law enforcement officers, [chengguan] should enforce the law, but they should not beat people.” [128]

Abuses Accompanying Confiscation of Goods

Chengguan frequently confiscate goods from street vendors. There is legal authority for such confiscations, but it is vague. The Administrative Penalty Law stipulates that “administrative organs” tasked with administrative regulation enforcement can confiscate “illegal gains … unlawful property … or things of value,” but does not provide any specific criteria for those categories.[129] The Administrative Enforcement Law provides general criteria for confiscations [130] chengguan may seize premises, facilities, or properties related to the “illegal acts” (with the exception of “daily necessities,” which may not be confiscated)—and stipulates the process by which seizure and confiscation should occur. [131]

[According to Wang Jianping, a professor of law at Sichuan University, China’s Property Law[132] emphasizes the inviolable nature of private property and should be interpreted to prohibit “[confiscation of] peddler’s merchandise and dealing wares.”[133] Renmin University law professor Wang Yi has similarly argued that the Property Rights Law protects all citizens, including unlicensed street vendors, from arbitrary confiscation of their belongings.[134]

Regardless of whether confiscation of goods is legal or appropriate in any given case, however, such confiscation should never be conducted with unnecessary violence. As detailed below, our research shows a number of instances in which chengguan confiscation of goods was accompanied by beatings and other abusive behavior.

A 36-year-old migrant vendor from Henan, Li Jiawen, suffered injury when chengguan confiscated her three-wheel cart loaded with corn on November 20, 2010, in Beijing. [135]

Around 4pm, the chengguan officers came over to confiscate the three-wheeler. My wife held on to the vehicle and refused to let go of it. Three or four chengguan officers went up to her. They twisted her arm, breaking the little finger on her left hand. We lost our vehicle and the corn in it.[136]

The victim’s husband said that Beijing municipal police subsequently arrived on the scene and brokered a medical compensation payment by the district chengguan authorities of 4,500 Yuan (US$705) for his wife. [137]

Wang Weiwei, a 41-year-old female migrant vendor from Hubei province who sells vegetables on the streets of central Beijing, told Human Rights Watch of the hazards she faced when resisting chengguan confiscation of her goods in April 2010:

I had set up my vegetable stall on the ground by the road. Three or four chengguan offices came over, wanting to raid my vegetable stall, but I defended it and refused to let them have it. They came up wanting to grab it by force; we got into a scuffle and started fighting. They verbally abused and beat me. They said that the sale of vegetables on the street is not allowed and that this is a regulation. I was beaten up. They hit me in the head and face and my nose was bleeding. They punched me in the face until my face was swollen. [138]

With police assistance Wang was subsequently able to negotiate for 500 Yuan (US$78) in medical compensation from the chengguan officers who beat her.

Even compliance with a chengguan confiscation operation is no guarantee of immunity from physical violence. A 36-year-old female spring roll vendor in Shenyang, Liao Meihua, told Human Rights Watch that she was beaten by chengguan officers in mid-2007 despite her lack of resistance when they confiscated her belongings.

It was at [Shengyang’s] Southern Gate. I had gone there at noon, during lunchtime, although I’m usually afraid to do so [because of the threat of chengguan]. The chengguan officers said to me “How daring of you to come here at lunchtime.” They confiscated my belongings and though I offered to pay them [a fine], the chengguan officers said “We don’t want money, it’s too late for that.” Six of the seven [chengguan officers] surrounded me; once their leader arrived, all his junior [officers] came up and started kicking me, causing me to fall. Many passersby witnessed it and they were all asking the officers to stop hitting me. [139]

Wang Xiangwei, a 31-year-old migrant street vendor from Henan province who sells barbecue kebab skewers in central Beijing, described what ensued when chengguan officers attempted to confiscate his scooter in July 2010.

[It was] at around 9pm. There were several people around me, waiting to buy skewers. I was still grilling the skewers when the chengguan arrived. The other street vendors and hawkers dispersed into the alleys, but I did not run away. Two [chengguan] came up to me and pressed me to the ground. They wanted to confiscate my scooter, but I refused to let them do so. I started to resist, using my forearms to push away [one of the] chengguan officers, who then used the back of his hand to slap me so hard that my glasses fell off. When the other two chengguan saw us fighting, they came up together to pin me down on the ground, and [the third chengguan officer] ran off, pushing the scooter along. [140]

The chengguan officers who confiscated Wang’s scooter returned it to him later that evening after he paid a 150 Yuan (US$23.50) fine. [141] That sum exceeded the upper limit for summary on-the-spot fines of 50 Yuan (US$7.9) and the officers failed to give a legal justification for the confiscation and fine as required by the Administrative Penalties Law. [142]

A 31-year-old male migrant fruit vendor from Henan province, Xie Dongfeng, told Human Rights Watch that what appeared to be plainclothes “hired assistants” of chengguan officers beat him after he resisted chengguan efforts to confiscate his three-wheel vending cart for “operating without a license.” [143]

[The chengguan] wanted to confiscate my three-wheel cart, but I refused to let them do so. They jumped onto the vehicle, started stomping on the fruit and making threats. Some abused me verbally, saying “Fxxx your mother. Who allowed you to peddle goods here?” I did not dare utter a word as there were so many of them. If I dared answer back, wouldn’t they beat me up? The chengguan officers didn’t hit me; instead they had two hired assistants beat me up. One held me down while the other hit me. I didn’t dare retaliate as there were yet more of them in the [chengguan] cars. I was beaten until my nose bled. [144]

Impunity

At least 18 people were killed in the course of chengguan law enforcement operations between September 2000 and June 2010 according to an unofficial estimate compiled by human rights lawyer Teng Biao in July 2010. [145] The majority of those deaths allegedly were due to injuries the victims suffered during beatings by chengguan personnel. [146] Media reports suggest that in many such cases, the alleged perpetrators were not investigated or prosecuted or, if prosecuted, received light sentences. [147]

The most notorious incident of chengguan violence resulting in the death of a citizen in recent years was the beating of Wei Wenhua in Tianmen, Hubei province. In the late afternoon of January 7, 2008, Wei Wenhua stopped his car to take pictures with his mobile phone camera of a roadside confrontation involving a group of at least 50 Tianmen chengguan. The chengguan were facing off with some residents of nearby Wanba village, who were attempting to block access to a waste dump site near their homes. When the chengguan noticed Wei filming the confrontation, 20 to 30 of them rushed over to him and began beating him. [148] A witness said that Wei repeatedly screamed “I surrender” during the assault. [149] Wei subsequently died of his injuries. [150] On November 10, 2009, a Hebei court sentenced four of the chengguan officers implicated in Wei’s killing to prison terms of three to six years. [151] The court granted leniency to Wei’s killers on the grounds that Wei had allegedly died of a heart attack triggered by the beating, rather than the beating itself. [152]

Local government authorities themselves have been unwilling to make an example of chengguan personnel who have been found legally responsible for deaths or serious injuries. On July 15, 2011, a group of chengguan officers in Linhai city, Zhejiang province, attempted to detain a street vendor selling grapes. One chengguan officer chased the vendor, apprehended him, pushed him to the ground, and kicked him until he passed out. The vendor was hospitalized with a perforated intestine. A Linhai government official later defended the chengguan officer who allegedly delivered the beating, insisting that the vendor’s injuries were unintentional and occurred when a “law enforcement officer accidentally stepped on [the vendor’s] stomach.” [153]

In numerous other well documented cases, chengguan implicated in unprovoked violence against citizens have been spared serious legal repercussions for their actions. On May 21, 2011, a roadside fruit vendor named Li Yong in Shenzhen resisted chengguan demands that he move his stall. Witnesses said a chengguan officer instructed his subordinates to “beat him [Li Yong], take everything away.” In plain sight of multiple witnesses, Chengguan officers proceeded to beat Li Yong on the head with their batons, resulting in head injuries. Shenzhen chengguan authorities subsequently paid Li Yong 7,000 Yuan (US$1,098) in compensation. However, no chengguan officials were arrested for the violence and the chengguan official in charge of the area where the assault occurred later insisted that Li’s injuries “were likely accidental.” [154]

On July 11, 2009, a group of five Shanghai chengguan attempted to confiscate the stock of roadside watermelon vendor Peng Lin. Peng resisted and at one point allegedly brandished a knife to try to protect his goods. The chengguan responded by dragging Peng to their van where they proceeded to beat him senseless. The beating left Peng with serious brain and neck injuries. Peng reportedly remains paralyzed and barely conscious. [155] A Shanghai court sentenced the five chengguan officers responsible for Peng’s injuries to prison terms of between three-and-a-half and five years on April 15, 2010. [156]

Popular perceptions that chengguan rarely get punished for abuses deter victims from pursuing legal action against them. Ten of the 25 victims of chengguan abuses interviewed by Human Rights Watch opted to not pursue legal action or civil compensation claims against their chengguan abusers. Their reasons for inaction ranged from perceptions that complaining to or about chengguan was “no use … [because the authorities] cover-up for each other” [157] to an assessment that there are “too many such incidents” that go legally unchallenged. [158] Liao Meihua, a Shenyang street vendor who has been a victim of chengguan violence “five or six times” since 2007, told Human Rights Watch that fear of retribution prevented her from attempting to seek legal action against or compensation from chengguan for such abuses.

I’m really afraid of applying for compensation. I still have to make a living – what am I to do the next time I run into [chengguan]? They will be more brutal the next time. They will beat you up and tell you: “You can sue at whatever place you wish.” They are not scared at all.[159]

III. Relevant International and Domestic Legal Standards

The abuses documented in this report, including beatings, threats, arbitrary detention, and extortion, are prohibited under Chinese and international law. Some of the relevant standards and instruments include the Universal Declaration of Human Rights; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the United Nations’ Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, the UN Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, and the UN standards for Treatment of Offenders; the UN Body of Principles for All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment; and the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China.

Excessive Force

None of the Chinese laws and directives that directly govern the operations of the chengguan regulate their use of force. Two non-binding but universally accepted international standards are relevant to regulating the use of force by chengguan. The first is the 1979 Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, adopted by the UN General Assembly. The code stipulates that in the performance of their duty, law enforcement officials shall respect and protect human dignity and maintain and uphold the human rights of all persons. Specifically, such officials may use force only when strictly necessary and to the extent required for the performance of their duty, a standard that implies the use of force should be exceptional, and strictly proportionate to the legitimate object to be achieved. Law enforcement officials are also bound to refrain from corrupt acts and oppose and combat all such acts. [160]

The 1990 UN Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, a non-binding standard that is nonetheless widely recognized as articulating universal norms, enjoin governments to “adopt and implement rules and regulations on the use of force … [and] keep the ethical issues associated with the use of force and firearms constantly under review.” [161] The Basic Principles also commit law enforcement officials to “as far as possible, apply non-violent means before resorting to the use of force and firearms. They may use force and firearms only if other means remain ineffective or without any promise of achieving the intended result.” [162] The Basic Principles also enumerate specific circumstances under which law enforcement officials may lawfully use force, reiterating the Code’s requirements of proportionality and necessity. [163]

Prohibition of Cruel, Inhuman, or Degrading Treatment and Torture

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights stipulates that “No one should be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment,”[164] while the ICCPR prohibits “torture or ... cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.”[165] The Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment protects detainees from “violence, threats or methods of interrogation which impair his capacity of decision or his judgment.”[166] The UN Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials also prohibits inflicting, instigating, or tolerating “any Act of torture or other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.”[167]

The brutal beatings chengguan have inflicted on some of their victims may be severe enough to meet the definition of torture under the UN Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, to which China has been party since 1988. Under this treaty;

The term torture means any act by which severe pain or suffering, whether physical or mental, is intentionally inflicted on a person for such purposes as obtaining from him or a third person information or a confession, punishing him for an act he or a third person has committed or is suspected of having committed, or intimidating or coercing him or a third person, or for any reason based on discrimination of any kind, when such pain or suffering is inflicted by or at the instigation of or with the consent or acquiescence of a public official or other person acting in an official capacity.[168]

The Convention against Torture also prohibits states from inflicting “cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment.” [169]

Physical abuse of detainees also violates China’s constitution (article 38 guarantees the “personal dignity of citizens”), Prison Law, and Police Law.

Due Process and Arbitrary Detention

Due process of law requires that government officials or security forces who detain or arrest someone or impose a penalty on someone identify themselves and provide the legal basis for their actions.

The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) prohibits arbitrary arrest [170] and requires that arrest and detention be “in accordance with such procedure as are established by law.” [171] The ICCPR also requires that any individuals arrested or detained by police or security forces have access “without delay” to a court hearing to determine the legality of their detention and that they be released if their detention is ruled unlawful. [172] The UN Human Rights Committee, which documents ICCPR compliance, has interpreted this provision to apply “to all deprivations of liberty, whether in criminal cases or in other cases such as, for example, mental illness, vagrancy, drug addiction, educational purposes, immigration control, etc.” [173] China has signed, but not ratified, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

The detention of people by chengguan authorities is illegal under Chinese law. Article 37 of the Constitution of the People’s Republic of China states that arrests must be conducted “with the approval or by decision of a people’s procuratorate or by decision of a people’s court and arrests must be made by a public security organ.” Article 38 of the constitution prohibits “false charge or frame-up” of any Chinese citizens. China’s Police Law limits police powers of interrogation and detention strictly to those suspected of criminal offences. [174] Police powers of detention and arrest are tightly circumscribed by China’s Criminal Procedure Law, which requires approval for arrests from the People’s Procuratorate or a public court [175] as well as an arrest warrant which the police must display at the time of arrest. [176]

Impunity

Police tolerance of and complicity in chengguan acts of physical violence and unauthorized detention violates provisions of China’s Police Law and Administrative Penalties Law. The Police Law obligates Chinese police to “prevent, stop and investigate illegal and criminal activities.” [177] Police who fail to do so are guilty of “dereliction of duty” and face administrative sanctions and/or criminal prosecution. [178] Detention of alleged administrative law violators is also inconsistent with the objectives of the Chinese government’s National Human Rights Action Plan (2009-2010), which provides in relevant part:

The State prohibits illegal detention by law enforcement personnel. Wrongful or prolonged detention shall be prevented. The State will [provide economic compensation], [179] legal remedies and rehabilitation to victims. Those who are responsible for illegal, wrongful or prolonged detention shall be subjected to inquiry and punished if found culpable. [180]

Acknowledgments

This report was edited by Sophie Richardson, China director at Human Rights Watch, and reviewed by Joseph Saunders, deputy program director, and Dinah PoKempner, general counsel.

Jake Scobey-Thal and Diana Parker, Asia associates, provided administrative and technical assistance. Production assistance was provided by Grace Choi, Anna Lopriore, Rafael Jimenez, Fitzroy Hepkins, and Jose Martinez.

Human Rights Watch wishes to thank several donors for their support including David A. Jones, Jr., Mary and Michael E. Gellert, James H. Ottaway, Jr., Anita and David Keller, and The Silicon Valley Community Foundation, as well as a very generous anonymous donor.

Above all, thanks go to the victims of chengguan abuse who made this report possible by agreeing to meet and share their experiences with us at length, often at considerable personal risk.

Annex I: Letter from Human Rights Watch to China’s Public Security Bureau

April 9, 2012

Meng Jianzhu

Minister of Public Security

People’s Republic of China

Beijing, China

Via facsimile

Dear Minister Meng,

Human Rights Watch is an independent international organization that monitors human rights in more than 90 countries around the world. We are currently preparing a report about human rights abuses allegedly perpetrated by Urban Management Law

Enforcement (城管执法) personnel.

Human Rights Watch conducted 25 interviews with victims in six cities in China between mid-2009 and 2011 to document a number of violent abuses by chengguan personnel. Our findings echo reports in China’s state media that alleged chengguan personnel have committed abuses. A Google search for Chinese-language references to chengguan produces literally millions of entries for “chengguan beat people” (城管打人). We note that public resentment toward chengguan abuses have fueled a number of increasingly violent protests by citizens angered by perceived chengguan excesses and perceptions of their impunity.

Below are some of our main findings:

Physical Violence and Torture

Chengguan personnel are accused of using excessive force against and publicly humiliating people. Seventeen of the twenty-five victims of chengguan abuse interviewed by Human Rights Watch claimed to be victims of excessive force. That excessive force, often inflicted in sight of multiple eye-witnesses, included being slapped, shoved, pushed to the ground, forcibly held down on the ground, dragged, punched, kicked, and thrown from vehicles to the street. Those beatings resulted in injuries ranging from bruises, cuts, and bloody noses to broken bones.

Illegal detention

Chengguan have no legal basis to detain individuals alleged to have violated administrative regulations; the Law on Administrative Penalty, which is the foundation of chengguan law enforcement powers, explicitly limits powers of detention and arrest to China’s public security organs. But two of the twenty-five people interviewed by Human Rights Watch reported that they were illegally detained by chengguan personnel. Another two interviewees said that chengguan had attempted to detain them, but that the interviewees had successfully resisted those efforts. In each of those cases, those interviewees were victims of physical violence during their detention or while attempting to resist it. The prominent Chinese human rights lawyer Teng Biao has noted that chengguan violations of legal restrictions on the detention of suspects also constitute violations of article 238 of China’s Criminal Law and make violators liable for severe punishment.

Abuses accompanying confiscation of goods

Chengguan frequently confiscate goods from street vendors. There is legal authority for such confiscations, but it is vague. Regardless of whether confiscation of goods is legal or appropriate in any given case, however, such confiscation should never be conducted with unnecessary violence. As detailed below, our research shows a number of instances in which chengguan confiscation of goods was accompanied by beatings and other abusive behavior.

Impunity

At least 18 people have been killed in the course of chengguan law enforcement operations between September 2000 and June 2010, according to an unofficial estimate compiled by the human rights lawyer Teng Biao in July 2010. The majority of those deaths have been the result of injuries allegedly inflicted by beatings by chengguan personnel. Media reports suggest that in numerous incidents where citizens have died following alleged chengguan violence, the suspected perpetrators were not investigated or sanctioned with appropriately serious penalties.

We would welcome any information or feedback the Public Security Bureau could provide regarding these issues as well as any steps it has taken or plans to take to address them. We would also appreciate your responses to the questions raised below as well as any additional information you wish to provide us.

Human Rights Watch strives to reflect all perspectives in our research and looks forward to your response. In light of our publishing schedule, we would be grateful to receive your response by Friday, April 27, 2012. Please send your response to Sophie Richardson, China director in the Asia division, by email at richars@hrw.org or by fax at +1-202-612-4333.

Thank you very much for your attention to this matter, and we look forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely,

Sophie Richardson

China Director, Human Rights Watch

  1. How many cities and municipalities in China currently have chengguan enforcement? What is the total number of chengguan personnel in China?
  2. What is the separation of powers of enforcement between Public Security Bureau and chengguan enforcement? In what ways can and do PSB personnel and chengguan cooperate in administrative regulation enforcement?
  3. Has the PSB been recording cases of chengguan excessive force against street vendors and others during administrative enforcement operations? If so, could you please supply us statistics on arrest and prosecution of chengguan personnel in such situations between 1997-2011?
  4. What is the PSB doing in order to prevent chengguan abuses such as those documented by Human Rights Watch’s research and to ensure that alleged perpetrators of such abuses are investigated and, where justified, prosecuted for such abuses?
  5. What legal or regulatory gaps or loopholes make it difficult or impossible for the PSB to adequately address alleged abuses by chengguan personnel? If such gaps exist, how could they be addressed in order to improve the ability of the PSB to prevent and investigate such abuses?
  6. In your opinion, is the chengguan actually necessary as an administrative enforcement agency? Could and/or should chengguan duties be fulfilled by PSB personnel?

Annex II: Letter from Human Rights Watch to the Chinese Communist Party’s Political and Legislative Affairs Committee

April 9, 2012

Zhou Yongkang

Chairman, Central Political and Legislative Committee

Communist Party of China Central Committee

People’s Republic of China

Beijing, China

Via facsimile

Dear Chairman Zhou,

Human Rights Watch is an independent international organization that monitors human rights in more than 90 countries around the world. We are currently preparing a report about human rights abuses allegedly perpetrated by Urban Management Law Enforcement (城管执法) personnel.

Human Rights Watch conducted 25 interviews with victims in six cities in China between mid-2009 and 2011 to document a number of violent abuses by chengguan personnel. Our findings echo reports in China’s state media that alleged chengguan personnel have committed abuses. A Google search for Chinese-language references to chengguan produces literally millions of entries for “chengguan beat people” (城管打人). We note that public resentment toward chengguan abuses have fueled a number of increasingly violent protests by citizens angered by perceived chengguan excesses and perceptions of their impunity.

Below are some of our main findings:

Physical Violence and Torture

Chengguan personnel are accused of using excessive force against and publicly humiliating people. Seventeen of the twenty-five victims of chengguan abuse interviewed by Human Rights Watch claimed to be victims of excessive force. That excessive force, often inflicted in sight of multiple eye-witnesses, included being slapped, shoved, pushed to the ground, forcibly held down on the ground, dragged, punched, kicked, and thrown from vehicles to the street. Those beatings resulted in injuries ranging from bruises, cuts, and bloody noses to broken bones.

Illegal detention

Chengguan have no legal basis to detain individuals alleged to have violated administrative regulations; the Law on Administrative Penalty, which is the foundation of chengguan law enforcement powers, explicitly limits powers of detention and arrest to China’s public security organs. But two of the twenty-five people interviewed by Human Rights Watch reported that they were illegally detained by chengguan personnel. Another two interviewees said that chengguan had attempted to detain them, but that the interviewees had successfully resisted those efforts. In each of those cases, those interviewees were victims of physical violence during their detention or while attempting to resist it. The prominent Chinese human rights lawyer Teng Biao has noted that chengguan violations of legal restrictions on the detention of suspects also constitute violations of article 238 of China’s Criminal Law and make violators liable for severe punishment.

Abuses accompanying confiscation of goods

Chengguan frequently confiscate goods from street vendors. There is legal authority for such confiscations, but it is vague. Regardless of whether confiscation of goods is legal or appropriate in any given case, however, such confiscation should never be conducted with unnecessary violence. As detailed below, our research shows a number of instances in which chengguan confiscation of goods was accompanied by beatings and other abusive behavior.

Impunity

At least 18 people have been killed in the course of chengguan law enforcement operations between September 2000 and June 2010, according to an unofficial estimate compiled by the human rights lawyer Teng Biao in July 2010. The majority of those deaths have been the result of injuries allegedly inflicted by beatings by chengguan personnel. Media reports suggest that in numerous incidents where citizens have died following alleged chengguan violence, the suspected perpetrators were not investigated or sanctioned with appropriately serious penalties.

We would welcome any information or feedback the Public Security Bureau could provide regarding these issues as well as any steps it has taken or plans to take to address them. We would also appreciate your responses to the questions raised below as well as any additional information you wish to provide us.

Human Rights Watch strives to reflect all perspectives in our research and looks forward to your response. In light of our publishing schedule, we would be grateful to receive your response by Friday, April 27, 2012. Please send your response to Sophie Richardson, China director in the Asia division, by email at richars@hrw.org or by fax at +1-202-612-4333.

Thank you very much for your attention to this matter, and we look forward to hearing from you.

Sincerely,

Sophie Richardson

China Director, Human Rights Watch

  1. How many cities and municipalities in China currently have chengguan enforcement? What is the total number of chengguan personnel in China?
  2. What is the separation of powers of enforcement between Public Security Bureau and chengguan enforcement? In what ways can and do PSB personnel and chengguan cooperate in administrative regulation enforcement?
  3. Has the PSB been recording cases of chengguan excessive force against street vendors and others during administrative enforcement operations? If so, could you please supply us statistics on arrest and prosecution of chengguan personnel in such situations between 1997-2011?
  4. What is the PSB doing in order to prevent chengguan abuses such as those documented by Human Rights Watch’s research and to ensure that alleged perpetrators of such abuses are investigated and, where justified, prosecuted for such abuses?
  5. What legal or regulatory gaps or loopholes make it difficult or impossible for the PSB to adequately address alleged abuses by chengguan personnel? If such gaps exist, how could they be addressed in order to improve the ability of the PSB to prevent and investigate such abuses?
  6. In your opinion, is the chengguan actually necessary as an administrative enforcement agency? Could and/or should chengguan duties be fulfilled by PSB personnel?

Annex III: Chinese State Media Accounts of Chengguan Abuses, March 2012-July 2010

Download the PDF

Date

Victims

Alleged Act

Chengguan: Number [182]

Chengguan: Division

Location [181]

Mar 17, 2012[183]

Mr. Kang Zhichang

7

Yan’an City Baota Unit

Beaten

Yan’an, Shaanxi

Mar 16, 2012[184]

Mr. Chen (street vendor)

several

Luohu District, East Gate Bureau

Brutally beaten with batons and ditched near an expressway

Luohu, Shenzhen, Guangdong

Mar 15, 2012[185]

Mr. Chen Feng (street vendor)

> 10

Gaochunxin District Station

Beaten; vehicle impounded

Gaochun, Nanjing, Jiangsu

Mar 10, 2012[186]

Ms. Zhu and her 12 year old child

1

Haikou City, Xiuying District Unit

Confiscated goods, kicked 12 year old

Xiuying, Haikou, Hainan

Mar 7, 2012[187]

Ms. Guo (street vendor)

4

Haikou Qiongshan Station

Beaten up, goods detained, gold necklace snatched

Qiongshan, Haikou, Hainan

Mar 5, 2012[188]

Ms. Wen, her husband Mr. Wu, her brother, cousin, and niece (<10 years old); and unnamed street vendor

> 50

Unknown

Beaten

Guandu, Kunming, Yunnan

Feb 5, 2012[189]

Mr. Wu’s wife (street vendor)

1

Fengze District Station

Beaten

Fengze, Quanzhou, Fujian

Jan 15, 2012[190]

Ms. Chen Jinhua (storeowner), her sister, Ms. Chen Jinmei, and her son, Xiao Niu

1

Hedong District Station

Beaten, Ms. Chen Jinhuan smashed on the head with a stool, 4 stitches required; Ms. Chen Jinmei, 2 stitches required; Xiaoniu traumatized by the violence inflicted upon his mother

Sanya, Hainan

Jan 9 -10, 2012[191]

Ms. Liu Wuxiu (street vendor)

> 5

Jingxi Street Bureau

Beaten up two days in a row, resulting in broken finger; offered money in exchange for signing a press release which denies that she was beaten up by chengguan

Baiyun, Guangzhou, Guangdong

Jan 6, 2012[192]

Mr. Ma and his brother

> 10

Qinhua District Station

Beaten

Qinhuai, Nanjing, Jiangsu

Jan 2, 2012 [193]

Mr. Yan Jun (disabled)

2

Xiangtan City, Yuetang District Station

Chengguan vehicle crashed into Mr. Yan’s tricycle; beaten up

Yuetang, Xiangtan, Hunan

Dec 29, 2011 [194]

Mr. Lu Haojie (mistaken for a street vendor)

4

Meihuacun Street Unit

Dragged onto chengguan car and brutally beaten, then tossed onto the street

Yuexiu, Guangzhou, Guangdong

Dec 28, 2011 [195]

Ms. Li (street vendor selling honey)

1

Houzhou Housing and Construction Station

Brutally beaten, bottles of honey smashed on her head

Huozhou, Linfen, Shanxi

Dec 26, 2011 [196]

Unnamed tourist couple

3

Lijiang City, Gucheng District, Dayan Gucheng Station

Physical altercation

Gucheng, Lijiang, Yunnan

Dec 19, 2011 [197]

Mr. Xie (street vendor)

> 10

Guandu District Unit

Fined by a group of chengguan, then beaten by a drunk chengguan

Guandu, Kunming, Yunnan

Dec 19, 2011 [198]

Ms. Fan (street vendor)

1

Guandu District Unit

Beaten by a drunk chengguan

Guandu, Kunming, Yunnan

Dec 14, 2011 [199]

Mr. Ning (street vendor)

2

Kunming City, Panlong District Bureau

Beaten

Panlong, Kunming, Yunnan

Dec 1, 2011 [200]

Female street vendor

4

Tongzhou District Unit

Chased onto the street and hit by a car

Tongzhou, Beijing

Nov 14, 2011 [201]

Mr. Wang

> 10

Tangyong Village Unit

Beaten for using mobile phone to take photographs of chengguan beating up female street vendor, forced to write self-criticsm apology letter, mobile phone reset

Baiyun, Guangzhou, Guangdong

Nov 16, 2011 [202]

Ms. Niu Guixiang (elderly street vendor) and her son

> 10

Nangang District Station

Ms. Niu brutally beaten, her son was involved in physical altercation with chengguan

Nangang, Harbin, Heilongjiang

Nov 8, 2011 [203]

Ms. Zhang

4 – 5

Licang Station, Hushan Street Unit

Beaten, detained

Licang, Qingdao, Shandong

Nov 7, 2011 [204]

Ms. Hu and husband

2

Nanshan Street Unit

Ms. Hu beaten, her husband severely beaten, resulting in several broken bones and about a dozen stitches

Nanshan, Shenzhen, Guangdong

Nov 7, 2011 [205]

Ms. Zhang (street vendor)

3

Guiyang City, Yunyan Unit

Beaten

Yunyan, Guiyang, Guizhou

Oct 31, 2011 [206]

Mr. Jiang and wife

several

Nantou Station

Beaten with steel bars and hacked with knives

Nanshan, Shenzhen, Guangdong

Oct 27, 2011 [207]

Unnamed elderly man and Mr. Zhang Ka (policeman)

> 20

Henan, Suiping Unit

Elderly man beaten up, policeman who arrived on the scene to stop the beating was beaten taken away by the chengguan

Suiping, Zhumadian, Henan

Oct 17, 2011 [208]

Several store attendants

> 12

Futian District Unit

Physical altercation

Futian, Shenzhen, Guangdong

Oct 7, 2011 [209]

Mr. Fu Guojun

> 30

Dabanqiao Street Bureau

Beaten to death (mistaken for another person)

Guandu, Kunming, Yunnan

Sep 20, 2011 [210]

Mr. Jia and Ms. Wang

 6 – 7

Rugao City Station

Beaten

Rugao, Nantong, Jiangsu

Sep 16, 2011 [211]

Mr. Li Fei

> 10

Yiliu Street Station

Brutally beaten

Guandu, Kunming, Yunnan

Sep 2, 2011 [212]

Mr. Duan Guozhi (street vendor)

7 – 8

Wuhua District Station

Brutally beaten

Wuhua, Kunming, Yunnan

Aug 30, 2011 [213]

Mr. Tan (street vendor)

10 – 20

Wuhua Station

Brutally beaten, 3 stiches required, goods detained

Wuhua, Kunming, Yunnan

Aug 18, 2011 [214]

Mr. Luo (automotive repair technician)

9

Yiliu Street Station

Brutally beaten

Guandu, Kunming, Yunnan

Aug 17, 2011 [215]

Unnamed elderly male street vendor

2

Yuhang District Station

Physical altercation

Hangzhou, Zhejiang

Aug 16, 2011 [216]

Several street vendors

> 20

Volunteers for Chengfeng Street Unit

Physical altercation

Putuo, Shanghai

Aug 16, 2011 [217]

20 street vendors

70 – 80

Taizhou City, Luqiao Unit

Physical altercation, stalls and beer bottles smashed

Luqiao, Taizhou, Zhejiang

Aug 15, 2011 [218]

Mr. Sun Tianyu (street musician)

8 - 9

Xuancheng City Station

Beaten, electric guitar and sound system smashed

Xuancheng, Anhui

Aug 11, 2011 [219]

Unnamed female motorist

Unknown

Qianxi Unit

Beaten, beating sparked off the smashing and flipping over one chengguan car and five police cars by the crowds which gathered

Qianxi, Bijie, Guizhou

Aug 11, 2011 [220]

Mr. Chen, his wife and brother-in-law

Unknown

Nanjing City, Liuhe District Unit

Beaten

Liuhe, Nanjing, Jiangsu

Aug 10, 2011 [221]

Mr. Wang (street vendor), his parents and female cousin

> 10

Unknown

Beaten, car impounded

Changyi, Weifang, Shandong

Aug 9, 2011 [222]

Ms. Lan (street vendor)

4

Shishi City Station

Physical altercation

Shishi, Quanzhou, Fujian

Aug 8, 2011 [223]

Mr. Gu (street vendor with disabilities)

4

Hongshan District Station

Physical altercation, stall destroyed

Hongshan, Wuhan, Hubei

Jul 30, 2011 [224]

Mr. Wang Wenquan

4 - 8

Xinhua Street Bureau

Beaten; vehicle windshield smashed

Decheng, Dezhou, Shandong

Jul 26, 2011 [225]

Mr. Deng Qiguo (street vendor with disabilities)

1

Xixiu District Station

Beaten to death

Xixiu, Anshun, Guizhou

Jul 26, 2011 [226]

Xiao Dai, his mother and grandfather

5 – 6

Xixia District Station

Physical altercation

Xixia, Yinchuan, Ningxia

Jul 25, 2011 [227]

Mr. Yue and Ms. Pu (street vendors)

3

Jinbi Street Unit

Physical altercation; Ms. Pu slashed by knife

Kunming, Yunnan

Jul 21, 2011 [228]

Mr. Zhu (street vendor)

2

Unknown

Brutally beaten, stall wrecked

Tianhe, Guangzhou, Guangdong

Jul 15, 2011 [229]

Mr. Zhang Biao (street vendor) and his family of 7 and several passerbys

> 10

Duqiao County Unit

Beaten

Linhai, Taizhou, Zhejiang

Jul 11, 2011 [230]

Mr. Yang Haibiao (street vendor’s husband)

unknown

Longwan District, Zhuangyuan Unit

Brutally beaten, resulting in rib fractures and serious injuries

Longwan, Wenzhou, Zhejiang

Jul 7, 2011 [231]

Ms. Zou (supermarket owner)

3

Xishan District, Zhongshu Ying Station

Beaten

Xishan, Kunming, Yunnan

Jul 4, 2011 [232]

Ms. Liang and Mr. Song (storeowners trying to help diffuse a quarrel near their stores)

10

Shizhong District, Guangming Street Unit

Physical altercation, Ms Liang’s finger bitten by a chengguan

Shizhong, Zaozhuang, Shandong

Jul 2, 2011 [233]

Mr. Gao and wife (passerby on the phone)

Multiple

Xianyang City,Weicheng District Unit

Beaten for being on the phone in the vicinity

Weicheng, Xianyang, Shaanxi

Jun 28, 2011 [234]

Mr. Yan (elderly street vendor)

4 – 5

Binhu Street Station

Bicycle detained; beaten resulting in finger dislocation

Jianye, Nanjing, Jiangsu

Jun 27, 2011 [235]

Mr. Zhang Jiyuan (street vendor)

3

Nanzheng County Dahekan Unit

Beaten

Nanzheng, Hanzhong, Shaanxi

Jun 27, 2011 [236]

Ms. Gao Shengmin

> 4

Laohekou City Bureau

Physical altercation; tricycle detained

Laohekou, Xiangyang, Hubei

Jun 22, 2011 [237]

Mr. Zhang and wife

> 10

Julu County Station

Beaten

Julu, Xingtai, Hebei

Jun 22, 2011 [238]

Mr. Huang Zongjian

5 - 6

Xingqing South District Station

Beaten

Xingqing, Yinchuan, Ningxia

Jun 15, 2011 [239]

Mr. Huang and 9 other villagers

> 10

Heilinpu Bureau

Physical altercation resulting in injuries

Wuhua, Kunming, Yunnan

Jun 14, 2011 [240]

Ms. Du Xianju (street vendor)

3

Yuzhong District Station

Injured from falling down a flight of stairs as a result of physical altercation

Yuzhong, Chongqing

Jun 13, 2011 [241]

Mr. Wu Zhuang

4

Zhengxiong Unit

Beaten

Zhenxiong, Zhaotong, Yunnan

Jun 11, 2011 [242]

Mr. Zheng Weiming

1

Chaoyang District, Yongchang Street Bureau

Beaten

Chaoyang , Changchun, Jilin

Jun 6, 2011 [243]

Mr. Meng (elderly man)

Several

Sishui County Station

Beaten to death

Sishui, Jining, Shandong

Jun 2, 2011 [244]

Mr. Guo Fei and Ms Guo Tian (high school children) and their unnamed aunt

Several

Zichang County, Shuangchuang Bureau

Brutally beaten

Zichang, Yan’an, Shaanxi

Jun 2, 2011 [245]

Ms. Li and Mr. Wang (street vendors)

> 10

Yulin City Station

Physical altercation, tricycle confiscated and Ms. Li taken away in chengguan car

Yulin, Shaanxi

Jun 1, 2011 [246]

Mr. Yan Fei

> 10

DianBu District Bureau

Brutally beaten

Feidong, Hefei, Anhui

May 31, 2011 [247]

Mr. Peng Yong

5 – 6

Meihua Street Station

Beaten and verbally threatened

Yuexiu, Guangzhou, Guangdong

May 30, 2011 [248]

Ms. Luo

4

Guandu District Unit

Slapped and strangled

Guandu, Kunming, Yunnan

May 27, 2011 [249]

Mr. Ji (street vendor)

1

Yan’an Street Unit

Brutally beaten

Shibei, Qingdao, Shandong

May 25, 2011 [250]

Mr. Guo Shenghua

4 – 5

Hanjiadun Street Bureau

Slapped

Qiaokou, Wuhan, Hubei

May 24, 2011 [251]

Mr. Hu (storeowner)

6

Wuxi Xishan District, Dongbeitang Street Unit

Beaten

Xishan, Wuxi, Jiangsu

May 24, 2011 [252]

Mr. Xu Shaohong (part of a band of four street musicians)

> 30

Chenggong Bureau

Beaten

Chenggong, Kunming, Yunnan

May 17, 2011 [253]

Unnamed married couple (street vendors)

Unknown

Dalian Street Unit

Beaten

Shandong, Rizhao, Donggang

May 14, 2011 [254]

Mr. Liu Yongxi (elderly street vendor)

2

Duyuan Street Bureau

Beaten; wares and goods destroyed

Jinjiang, Chengdu, Sichuan

May 13, 2011 [255]

Mr. Lin Gaofeng and Ms. Cheng Yanni

> 4

Tongchuan City Yaozhou District Unit

Brutally beaten for taking photographs of law enforcement incident

Yaozhou, Tongchuan, Shaanxi

May 11, 2011 [256]

Ms. Wang and her son (street vendors)

5

Beihai City, Haicheng District Unit

Physical altercation

Haicheng, Beihai, Guangxi

May 8, 2011 [257]

Mr. Zhao Yu (store owner) and his father

20 – 30

Yunlong District , Xuzhou City, Luotuoshan street Bureau

Beaten and store destroyed, using steel bars, fridge and vehicle confiscated

Yunlong, Xuzhou, Jiangsu

May 6, 2011 [258]

Mr. and Mrs. Li (street vendors)

> 8

Shuangqiao District Unit

Car detained; Mrs. Li brutally beaten and whipped

Guandu, Kunming, Yunnan

May 3, 2011 [259]

Mr. Zhou Xiaoming, his wife Ms. Wu Suli, and their son Mr. Zhou Yang

6

Liaoyang Station

Mr. Zhou Xiaoming brutally beaten to death; Mr. Zhou Yang brutally beaten; Ms. Wu slapped

Hongwei, Liaoyang, Liaoning

Apr 30, 2011 [260]

Mr. Xu Yunqing

3

Daxing City Unit

Physical altercation; chengguan drove vehicle over and crushed his foot

Yinghai, Daxing, Beijing

Apr 29, 2011 [261]

Mr. Li Fanyong (refuse picker)

3

Tianyuan District North Unit

Pushed to the ground and injured; tricycle confiscated

Tianyuan, Zhuzhou, Hunan

Apr 28, 2011 [262]

Mr. Wang and his pregnant wife

5 – 6

Duqiao Unit

Beaten and pushed to the ground

Weinan, Shaanxi

Apr 27, 2011 [263]

Ms. Xie (street vendor)

6 – 7

Yunxiao City Station

Physical altercation; injured

Yunxiao, Zhangzhou, Fujian

Apr 26, 2011 [264]

Several unnamed young men

Unknown

Unknown

Physical altercation

Changsha, Hunan

Apr 24, 2011 [265]

Mr. Guo Gang

2

Yichun City Station

Brutally beaten, permanently blinding his left eye

Yichun, Jiangxi

Apr 22, 2011 [266]

Mr. Zhan Youming, Mr. Zhan Youli, Ms. Liu Qunfang, Ms. Xu

> 10

Wuhou City Committee

Beaten

Wuhou, Chengdu, Sichuan

Apr 14, 2011 [267]

Mr. Ye Jianguo and Mr. He Jiahong (street vendors)

> 10

Jiangbei District Guanyinqiao Street Squad

Brutally beaten

Jiangbei, Chongqing

Apr 13, 2011 [268]

Unnamed motorist

5 - 8

Songjiang Station

Beaten

Songjiang, Shanghai

Apr 13, 2011 [269]

Mr. Gao and his two sons (street vendors)

> 10

Majiabao Station

Beaten and wares detained

Fengtai, Beijing

Apr 6, 2011 [270]

Ms. Li (store owner)

1

Xuanwu District, Meiyuan Unit

Physical altercation

Xuanwu, Nanjing, Jiangsu

Apr 6, 2011 [271]

Mr. Yan

unknown

Shushan District Bureau

Beaten, strangled, taken away by car

Shushan, Hefei, Anhui

Apr 3, 2011 [272]

Ms. Zhao and several other street vendors

> 10

Zhoucun District Station

Beaten

Zhoucun, Zibo, Shandong

Mar 29, 2011 [273]

Mr. Zhang Hongwen (elderly street vendor)

2

Wuqiao Construction Bureau

Beaten; goods confiscated

Wuqiao, Cangzhou, Hebei

Mar 23, 2011 [274]

Mr. Zheng Lei (elderly street vendor)

1

Fuhua Street Bureau

Brutally beaten

Erqi, Zhengzhou, Henan

Mar 22, 2011 [275]

20 vendors

> 60

Daxing Unit

Physical altercation, many injured from both parties

Daxing, Beijing

Mar 15, 2011 [276]

20 individuals seeking to protect their land

> 60

Yuquan Street Bureau

Beaten

Jiyuan, Henan

Jan 27, 2011 [277]

Mr. Zhang and two unnamed individuals

> 10

Yaohua Street Bureau

Physical altercation, many injured from both parties

Qixia, Nanjing, Jiangsu

Jan 16, 2011 [278]

Unnamed sales assistants (elderly man and pregnant woman)

7 - 8

Yan’an Municipal Bureau Fenghuang Unit

Beaten

Yan’an, Shaanxi

Jan 20, 2011 [279]

Mr. Zhang and his wife (elderly street vendors)

1

Songjianghe Forestry and Sanitation Bureau

Beaten

Fusong, Baishan, Jilin

Jan 19, 2011 [280]

Three street vendors

1

Longhua Unit

Physical altercation, one female street vendor injured

Bao’an, Shenzhen, Guangdong

Jan 14, 2011 [281]

Mr. Wu Shide and wife (street vendors)

> 3

Longtousi Station

Beaten

Yubei, Chongqing

Jan 6, 2011 [282]

Mr. Zhou and wife

>20

Baishan City Unit

Beaten

Baishan, Jilin

Jan 4, 2011 [283]

5 - 6 street vendors

> 10

Zhangjiang Unit

Physical altercation, many injured from both parties

Zhangjiang, Pudong, Shanghai

Dec 13, 2010 [284]

Miss Gao (storeowner)

7 - 8

Guandu District, Taihe Station

Store destroyed

Guandu, Kunming, Yunnan

Dec 24, 2010 [285]

Mr. Zhang Jin (policeman)

> 20

Panlong District Bureau

Beaten

Panlong, Kunming, Yunnan

 

Dec 24, 2010 [286]

Mr. Zhou Jianfu

6

Jianxin Bureau

Beaten

Cangshan, Fuzhou, Fujian

Dec 22, 2010 [287]

Mr. Fu Longchao (passerby)

> 20

Dingxiao Economic Development Zone Station

Beaten, taken away in the chengguan car and was abandoned in the wilderness

Xingyi, Qianxinan, Guizhou

Dec 19, 2010 [288]

Three postal staff and Mr. Bao, a passerby trying to help

> 10

Hongkou District Bureau

Beaten

Hongkou, Shanghai

Dec 18, 2010 [289]

Mr. Jing Kaiguo (elderly street vendor)

> 2

Bozhou Street Unit

Taken away by chengguan as injuries from physical altercation drew attention

Luyang, Hefei, Anhui

Dec 17, 2010 [290]

Female parking lot attendant

2

Hanzhong City Station, Second Unit

Dragged into chengguan car and beaten

Hantai, Hanzhong, Shaanxi

Dec 12, 2010 [291]

Mr. Zhang Chengzhi (15 year old)

7 - 8

Hongkou District Unit

Beaten

Hongkou, Shanghai

Dec 11, 2010 [292]

Ms. Yan, Ms. Li, Mr. Liu, Mr. Shi (tourists from Guizhou)

> 3

Sanya City, Hexi District Unit

Beaten

Sanya, Hainan

Dec 7, 2010 [293]

Mr. Yang, his wife and son

> 3

Nanxiashu Street Unit

Beaten, slapped; 7-8 cartons of vegetables confiscated

Wujin, Changzhou, Jiangsu

Nov 27, 2010 [294]

Ms. Rao Shufen (elderly street vendor)

3

Licheng District Station Kaiyuan Unit

Beaten

Licheng, Quanzhou, Fujian

Nov 23, 2010 [295]

Mr. Hu Tituan

6

Qianxian Station

Died from motorcycle crash as a result of a car chase by 6 chengguan vehicles

Qianxian, Xianyang, Shaanxi

Nov 17, 2010 [296]

Mr. Huang Yingan

4

Nanchong City Yilong County Bureau

Beaten

Yilong, Nanchong, Sichuan

Nov 15, 2010 [297]

Mr. Ge and his pregnant wife

5 - 6

Hohhot, Yuquan District Second Unit

Beaten

Yuquan District, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia

Nov 10, 2010 [298]

Ms. Yan Chunsheng (elderly farmer)

2

Gaochun District Station

Finger broken off

Gaochun, Nanjing, Jiangsu

Nov 9, 2010 [299]

Mr. Zhang Huiquan (elderly farmer)

4

Jinshui District Bureau

Slapped

Zhengzhou, Henan

Nov 7, 2010 [300]

Ms. Xie Chunmei

7 - 8

Kuancheng District Dongguang Bureau

Beaten, resulting in miscarriage; goods confiscated

Kuancheng, Changchun, Jilin

Nov 4, 2010 [301]

Mr. Li Ximing

> 10

Guandu District Yiliu Street Bureau

Brutally beaten

Guandu, Kunming, Yunnan

Nov 3, 2010 [302]

Mr. Tai and family, Mr. Kong

8

Qianguo District Station

Beaten

Qian Gorlos, Songyuan, Jilin

Oct 23, 2010 [303]

Mr. Li Bo (tourist)

2

Chenggong District Unit

Beaten, camera confiscated for filming law enforcement process

Chenggong, Kunming, Yunnan

Oct 22, 2010 [304]

Mr. Xi Pingzhao

5

Qianxian Station

Brutally beaten

Qianxian, Xianyang, Shaanxi

Oct 21, 2010 [305]

Mr. Shi and family

> 20

Yunyan Station

Beaten

Yunyan, Guiyang, Guizhou

Oct 20, 2010 [306]

Mr. Wang Lianggang and wife, Ms. Yu Cuiping (street vendors)

14 - 15

Erqi District Wulibao Bureau

Brutally beaten and stall wrecked and goods smashed

Erqi, Zhengzhou, Henan

Oct 17, 2010 [307]

Mr. Luo

> 3

Xiangshan District Station

Beaten

Xiangshan, Guilin, Guangxi

Oct 16, 2010 [308]

Mr. Li Fujun (homeowner with physical disabilities)

5

Erqi District Huaihe Road Unit

Home demolished, beaten and thrown into a ditch 30km away from home in the middle of the night

Erqi, Zhengzhou, Henan

Oct 14, 2010 [309]

Unnamed street vendor, Ms. Zhao Juan (passerby who filmed the beating of street vendor)

> 3

Yancheng City Bureau

Street vendor beaten; Ms Zhao Juan strangled, beaten, dragged by the hair, detained for several hours

Tinghu, Yancheng, Jiangsu

Oct 14, 2010 [310]

Ms. Shi (street vendor) and unnamed security guard

4

Longquan Street Bureau

Slapped and beaten, car tires slashed, goods smashed. Security guard taken away for using mobile phone (suspected of filming)

Panlong, Kunming, Yunnan

Oct 8, 2010 [311]

Street vendors and Mr. Liu Sheng (passerby trying to help)

7 - 8

Zhengzhou Songshan Road Bureau

Brutally beaten, threatened by knives

Erqi, Zhengzhou, Henan

Oct 2, 2010 [312]

Mr. Zhu Puji (part-time sales promoter, college student)

> 10

Wuchang District Station

Beaten

Wuchang, Wuhan, Hubei

Sep 22, 2010 [313]

Mr. Zhang

> 10

Xi’an City Station

Beaten

Weiyang, Xi’an, Shaanxi

Sep 20, 2010 [314]

Mr. Wang Can and father, Mr. Wang Quanwei

>10

Shunping County Unit

Beaten

Shunping, Baoding, Hebei

Sep 16, 2010 [315]

Mr. Ji Yongqing and wife (street vendors), Mr. Chen Quanxin (sanitation worker)

3

Nanyang Xincun Bureau

Street vendors beaten, whipped with belth, pushed out of chengguan car, goods confiscated. Sanitation worker slapped

Jinshui, Zhengzhou, Henan

Sep 14, 2010 [316]

Mr. Wang

1

Xinkaipu Bureau

Beer bottle smashed on head

Tianxin, Changsha, Hunan

Sep 14, 2010 [317]

Ms. Han Shuqin, Mr. Li Jinfeng

> 10

Yongji County North Unit

Brutally beaten

Yongji, Jilin

Sep 13, 2010 [318]

Ms. Wang (hair salon owner)

1

Fengtai District Xiluoyuan Unit

Beaten and strangled

Fengtai, Beijing

Sep 10, 2010 [319]

Female journalist

1

Nanning City, Xixiangtang District Unit

Camera snatched, beaten, strangled, pushed into chengguan car

Xixiangtang, Nanning, Guangxi

Sep 8, 2010 [320]

Mr. Li (street vendor)

4 - 5

Nanhu Street Bureau

Brutally beaten, goods confiscated

Jianye, Nanjing, Jiangsu

Sep 2, 2010 [321]

Mr. Ding Liuyi (street vendor)

5 - 6

Baqiao Hongqing Street Bureau

Brutally beaten, wares snatched

Baqiao, Xi’an, Shaanxi

Sep 1, 2010 [322]

Ms. Wang Xifen and Mr. Zhang Huiyuan

9 - 10

Wuxi Huazhuang Street Bureau

Brutally beaten, goods confiscated

Binhu, Wuxi, Jiangsu

Aug 28, 2010 [323]

Mr. Li

1

Zhendian Street Bureau

Beaten by drunk chengguan

Jiangxia, Wuhan, Hubei

Aug 25, 2010 [324]

Ms. Guo Hongxiu and husband

> 20

Yangluo Street Unit

Brutally beaten

Xinzhou, Wuhan, Hubei

Aug 24, 2010 [325]

Mr. Yan, wife and son

> 10

Changzhou Wuxin Unit

Beaten

Zhonglou, Changzhou, Jiangsu

Aug 18, 2010 [326]

Mr. Han (passerby)

20 - 30

Mifeng Zhang Street Bureau

Beaten

Erqi, Zhengzhou, Henan

Aug 16, 2010 [327]

Ms. Xie Huaxiang (street vendor) and Mr. Jiang Bing (passerby)

3

Furong District Unit

Beaten

Furong, Changsha, Hunan

Aug 5, 2010 [328]

Mr. Qi Peng and his wife, Ms. Yan Yuqun

> 10

Jiangan Station

Mr. Qi injured, Ms. Yan scalded

Jiang’an, Wuhan, Hubei

Aug 5, 2010 [329]

Mr. Zheng Kejin and an unnamed female street vendor

4

Xiadu Street Bureau

All beaten, street vendor’s melons destroyed

Cangshan, Fuzhou, Fujian

Aug 4, 2010 [330]

Deng Chunping

> 10

Jiangxia District Station

Beaten, provoked into taking poison (Dichlorvos) as a form of protest

Jiangxia, Wuhan, Hubei

Aug 2, 2010 [331]

Ms. Lin (passerby filming incident)

2

Shaoguan City Shixing County Unit

Beaten

Shixing, Shaoguan, Guangdong

Jul 29, 2010 [332]

Mr. Cheng and an unnamed woman

4 - 5

Nanchang City Station

Beaten and strangled

Nanchang, Jiangxi

Jul 28, 2010 [333]

Seven street vendors

> 7

Baohe District, Binhu Bureau

Physical altercation

Baohe, Hefei, Anhui

Jul 27, 2010 [334]

More than 20 staff members of Beijing TCTD Construction and Decoration Engineering Co, Ltd

10

Daxing District Unit

Beaten

Yizhuang, Daxing, Beijing

Jul 23, 2010 [335]

Mr. Chen Hanzhou

20 - 30

Ganghua Village Station

Detained and brutally beaten

Qingshan, Wuhan, Hubei

Jul 14, 2010 [336]

Eight street vendors

60

Nanning City Xingning District Squad

Physical altercation, 8 street vendors injured

Nanning, Guangxi

Jul 14, 2010 [337]

Mr. Che Xuan

3

Gulou District Station

Beaten

Gulou, Kaifeng, Henan

Jul 12, 2010 [338]

Mr. Li, (vegetable seller), his wife Ms. Zhang and their son

> 20

Unknown

Brutally beaten

Jiutai, Changchun, Jilin

Jul 9, 2010 [339]

Xiong Junzhi (sanitation worker)

3

Guiyang City Yunyan Unit

Hit and run incident

Yunyan, Guiyang, Guizhou

Jul 8, 2010 [340]

Mr. Luo

7 - 8

Unknown

Beaten, car smashed, two cell phones snatched

Yanta, Xi’an, Shaanxi

Jul 8, 2010 [341]

Mr. and Mrs. Jie (restaurant owners)

1

Jiang’an District Xincun Street Unit

Physical altercation, both parties injured

Jiang’an, Wuhan, Hubei

Jul 6, 2010 [342]

More than four street vendors

2

Bantian Street Bureau

Four stalls and their wares wrecked, several people beaten

Longgang, Shenzhen, Guangdong

Jul 5, 2010 [343]

Crowd attempting to defend melon vender

1

Qixia District Yanziji Street Division

Pepper sprayed

Nanjing, Jiangsu

Jul 1, 2010 [344]

Ms. Luoyan (storeowner), Mr. Luomeng and, Ms. Luo Xihuan

>20

Songyang Road Station

Beaten

Dengfeng, Zhengzhou, Henan

[1]Human Rights Watch interview with Wang Ren (a pseudonym), a Beijing street vendor, December 7, 2010.

[2]池启演主编.,《最新基层城管工作必备手册》,(北京中国大地出版社2008) [Chi Qiyan, ed., The Newest Essential Manual for Chengguan Grassroots Work(Beijing: China Land Press, 2008)].

[3]张东锋, 网友曝光城管打人不见血教材”,南方都市报(广州)[Zhang Dongfeng, Netizen exposes textbook on beating without drawing blood,Southern Metropolis Daily (Guangzhou)], July 22, 2009, http://epaper.oeeee.com/A/html/2009-04/22/content_767607.htm (accessed October 11, 2011).

[4] Constitution of the People’s Republic of China (adopted on December 4, 1982), art. 33, http://english.people.com.cn/constitution/constitution.html (accessed March 28, 2012).

[5] “China to map out 2nd action plan on human rights,” China Daily, (Beijing), September 28, 2011, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2011-09/28/content_13813529.htm (accessed October 23, 2011).

[6] Chinese Human Rights Defenders, 城管综合行政执法体制的制度弊端及城管执法对人权的侵害 (“Urban management comprehensive administrative law enforcement system and human rights violations by urban management personnel”), http://wqw2010.blogspot.com/2011/11/blog-post_5808.html (accessed January 13, 2011).

[7]中华人民共和国行政府处罚法, 1996年3月17日第八届全国人民代表大会第四次会议通过1996317日中华人民共和国主席令第六十三号公布,自1996101日起施行 (Law of the Peoples Republic of China on Administrative Penalty, adopted on March 17, 1996 and effective on October 1, 1996), http://www.china.org.cn/english/government/207307.htm (accessed April 8, 2012).

[8] Ibid., art. 16.

[9]国务院1996415日《国务院关于贯彻实施〈中华人民共和国行政处罚法〉的通知(国发[199613号)(Circular of the State Council Regarding the Implementation of Law of the Peoples Republic of China on Administrative Punishments, effective on April 15, 1996), http://www.sse.com.cn/sseportal/dmxh/xz_new_20030803g.pdf (accessed April 8, 2012);

国务院19991118日《关于全面推进依法行政的决定》(国发〔199923号)(Decision on Pushing Forward Administration by Law in an All-Round Way, effective on November 18, 1999), http://www.js-n-tax.gov.cn/publicinfo/PubLicInfoDetail.aspx?Id=5679 (accessed April 9, 2012);

国务院办公厅 2000 9 8《关于继续做好相对集中行政处罚权试点工作的通知》(国办发(200063号文)(Circular of the State Council on Continued Pilot Work on Relative Centralization of Power to Impose Administrative Penalty, effective on September 8, 2000), http://www.zszfj.gov.cn/show.asp?newsid=44 (accessed April 9, 2012);

2002 8 22 国务院《关于进一步推进相对集中行政处罚权工作的决定》(国发( 2002 17 号文)

(Decision of the State Council on the Work of Further Promotion of Relative Centralization of Power to Impose Administrative Penalty), adopted on August 22, 2002, http://www.js-n-tax.gov.cn/publicinfo/PubLicInfoDetail.aspx?Id=5680 (accessed April 9, 2012).

[10]褚朝新,“湖北天门城管歧路:执法就是靠打?”新京报(北京) [Chu Chaoxin, Hubei Tianmen chengguan: “Crossroads” for law enforcement?” Beijing News(Beijing)], November 22, 2009, http://epaper.bjnews.com.cn/html/2008-09/22/content_266532.htm?div=-1 (accessed October 10, 2011).

[11]Xie Chuanjiao, “Police support for Yantai chengguan,” China Daily (Beijing), May 29, 2009, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2009-05/29/content_7951683.htm (accessed October 30, 2011).

[12]国务院1996415日《国务院关于贯彻实施〈中华人民共和国行政处罚法〉的通知(国发[199613号)[Circular of the State Council Regarding the Implementation of Law of the Peoples Republic of China on Administrative Punishments, effective on April 15, 1996, No. 13, (3)], para. 2, http://www.sse.com.cn/sseportal/dmxh/xz_new_20030803g.pdf (accessed April 8, 2012).

[13]The Chinese government classifies former employees of struggling state-owned firms as laid-off or xia gang (下岗) rather than officially unemployed because their former employers are expected to provide them with aliving allowance. However, many of the laid-off workers have to fight to secure those basic benefits as struggling state-sector firms shortchange employees to stave off bankruptcy. Owen Brown, “Job Creation Emerges As Priority For Chinas New Leaders,” Dow Jones Newswires, October 4, 2002.

[14]章仲威伊穄衛,2009: 中国本命年,中共应对动乱危(Zhang Zhongwei and Yi Jiwei, 2009: China’s Fateful Year, The Chinese Communist Party’s Response to its Crisis of Unrest), (New York: Mirror Books, 2009), pp.247-248.

[15]Austin Ramzy, “Above the Law? China’s Bully-Boy Enforcement Officers,” Time, May 21, 2009, http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1899773,00.html (accessed October 10, 2011).

[16]中华人民共和国行政府处罚法, 1996317日第八届全国人民代表大会第四次会议通过1996317日中华人民共和国主席令第六十三号公布,自1996101日起施行 (Law of the People’s Republic of China on Administrative Penalty, adopted on March 17, 1996 and effective on October 1, 1996), http://www.china.org.cn/english/government/207307.htm (accessed April 8, 2012).

[17] Ibid., art. 8.

[18]Ibid., art. 5.

[19]Ibid., art. 4.

[20] Ibid., art. 6.

[21] Ibid., art. 34.

[22] Ibid., art. 31.

[23] Ibid., art. 32.

[24]池启演主编.最新基层城管工作必备手册(Chi Qiyan, ed., The Newest Essential Manual for Chengguan Grassroots Work), p. 851.

[25] 2002 8 22国务院《关于进一步推进相对集中行政处罚权工作的决定》(国发(200217号文)

(Decision of the State Council on the Work of Further Promotion of Relative Centralization of Power to Impose Administrative Penalty, effective on August 22, 2002, No. 17), art. 2. The eight categories of chengguan enforcement stipulated by the State Council, China’s cabinet, are as follows: environmental hygiene, urban planning, urban beautification, city administration, environmental protection, industrial operations, traffic law enforcement, and unspecified “other administrative punishment” areas deemed appropriate by provincial, autonomous region, and municipal governments.

[26]没有整体的法律,城管职权支离破碎”,新京报 (北京) [“No Comprehensive Law, Fragmented Urban Management Functions,” Beijing News(Beijing)], January 20, 2008, http://epaper.bjnews.com.cn/html/2008-01/20/content_146919.htm?div=-1 (accessed October 11, 2011).

[27]Legitimacy Issue,” China Daily (Beijing), July 30, 2010, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2010-07/30/content_11070750.htm (accessed October 30, 2011).

[28] “China’s enforcement officers turned thugs,” Straits Times (Singapore), October 30, 2009, http://guanyu9.blogspot.com/2009/11/chinas-enforcement-officers-turned.html (accessed October 30, 2011).

[29] Chinese Human Rights Defenders, 城管综合行政执法体制的制度弊端及城管执法对人权的侵害 , (“Urban management comprehensive administrativelaw enforcement system and human rights violations by urban management personnel”), http://wqw2010.blogspot.com/2011/11/blog-post_5808.html (accessed January 13, 2011) .

[30]Coldness Kwan, “Property law challenges power of Chengguan?China Daily (Beijing), April 3, 2007, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2007-04/03/content_842743.htm(accessed April 8, 2012).

[31]小贩杀死俩城管被判死刑律师辩词催人泪下”,中国青年报 (北京) [“Vendor sentenced to death for killing two chengguan; A lawyer’s heartbreaking defense, China Youth Daily, (Beijing)], May 10, 2007.

[32]中华人民共和国行政强制法, 已由中华人民共和国第十一届全国人民代表大会常务委员会第二十一次会议于2011630日通过,现予公布,自201211日起施行。(Administrative Enforcement Law of the Peoples Republic of China, adopted on June 30, 2011 and effective on January 1, 2012), http://www.gov.cn/flfg/2011-07/01/content_1897308.htm (accessed April 9, 2012).

[33] Choi Chi-yui, “NPC again considers law to rein in violent city administrators,” South China Morning Post (Hong Kong), April 22, 2011.

[34] Ibid.

[35]Law on Administrative Enforcement, art. 2. “Administrative enforcement refers to the performance of obligations as legally enforced by administrative organs or by the peoples courts upon applications of administrative organs against citizens, legal persons or other organizations which do not perform administrative decisions.”

[36] Ibid. Article 12 of the Law on Administrative Enforcement lists the following “manners of administrative enforcement”:

(1) Fines or late fees; (2) Transfer of deposits or remittances; (3) Auction or legal disposition of premises, facilities or properties that are seized or impounded; (4) Removal of obstructions or restitution; (5) Performance on behalf of the party concerned; and (6) Other manners of enforcement.

[37] Ibid. “Administrative compulsory measures refer to the temporary restriction of the personal freedom of citizens or temporary control of the property of citizens, legal persons or other organizations according to law by administrative organs in the process of administration for such purposes as stopping illegal acts, preventing destruction of evidence, avoiding damage and containing expansion of danger.” Article 10 of the Law on Administrative Enforcement specifies the following administrative compulsory measures: “(1) Restricting the personal freedom of a citizen; (2) Seizing premises, facilities or property; (3) Impounding property; (4) Freezing deposits or remittances; and (5) Other administrative compulsory measures.”

[38] Ibid., art. 1. “This Law is formulated in accordance with the Constitution for the purposes of regulating the setting and implementation of administrative compulsion, guaranteeing and supervising administrative organs' performance of duties according to law, maintaining public interests and social order and protecting the legitimate rights and interests of citizens, legal persons and other organizations.”

[39] Ibid., art. 5. The setting and implementation of administrative compulsion shall be appropriate. If the purposes of administration may be achieved by non-compulsory means, no administrative compulsion shall be set or implemented.

[40] Ibid., art. 23. “Seizure and impoundment shall be limited to the case-related premises, facilities or properties, and no premises, facilities or properties irrelevant to the illegal acts shall be seized or impounded. The daily necessities of citizens and their dependents shall not be seized or impounded. Premises, facilities or property of the party concerned, which have been seized by any other state organ according to law, shall not be seized repeatedly.” Ibid., art. 28. “ Under any of the following circumstances, an administrative organ shall timely make a decision on lifting a seizure or impoundment: (1) The party concerned has not committed any illegal act; (2) The seized or impounded premises, facilities or properties are irrelevant to the illegal act; (3) The administrative organ has already made a handling decision on the illegal act, and a seizure or impoundment is no longer necessary; (4) The term of seizure or impoundment has expired; or (5) The measure of seizure or impoundment is otherwise no longer necessary. Where a seizure or impoundment is lifted, the relevant properties shall be returned immediately. If the fresh goods or other perishable properties have been auctioned or sold, the proceeds from the auction or sale shall be refunded. If the selling price is obviously lower than the market price, causing any loss to the party concerned, compensation shall be made for the loss.”

[41] Ibid., art. 18.1) Before implementation, a report on implementation shall be submitted to the person in charge of the administrative organ and an approval of implementation shall be obtained.
(2) An administrative compulsory measure shall be implemented by two or more law enforcement personnel of the administrative organ. (3) Law enforcement identity certificates shall be produced. (4) The party concerned shall be notified to be present. (5) The party concerned shall be notified on the spot of the reasons and basis for taking the administrative compulsory measure and the rights of and remedies available to the party concerned according to law. (6) The statements and arguments of the party concerned shall be heard. (7) On-site transcripts shall be made. (8) The on-site transcripts shall be signed or sealed by the party concerned and the law enforcement personnel of the administrative organ, and if the party concerned refuses to do so, it shall be noted in the transcripts. 9) If the party concerned is not present, witnesses shall be invited to be present, and the witnesses and the law enforcement personnel of the administrative organ shall sign or seal the on-site transcripts. (10) Other procedures as prescribed by laws and regulations.”

[42]Law on Administrative Penalty, art. 13. Administrative enforcement shall be set by law. Where enforcement by administrative organs is not provided for by law, the administrative organ making the relevant administrative decision shall apply to the people's court for enforcement.

[43] Ibid., art. 16.The State Council or the peoples government of a province, autonomous region or municipality directly under the Central Government that is empowered by the State Council may decide to have an administrative organ exercise other administrative organs power of administrative penalty. However, the power of administrative penalty involving restriction of freedom of person shall only be exercised by the public security organs.”

[44] Lehman, Lee and Xu,The Administrative Enforcement Law of the PRC was Released, post to “China Blawg” (blog), July 5, 2011, http://blawg.lehmanlaw.com/wordpress/?p=890 (accessed March 29, 2012).

[45]濮加友,“《行政强制法》对城管执法工作的影响”,特区城市管理 (Pu Jiayou, “Administrative enforcement of Urban Management and Law Enforcement Work,” Special Administrative Region Urban Management), February 9, 2012, http://www.cn-hw.net/html/17/201202/31864.html# (accessed March 29, 2012).

[46]杨涛, 城管强征将了行政强制法一军”,经济参考报(Yang Tao, “Urban Management an Administrative Army,” Economic Information Daily), February 9, 2012, http://www.jjckb.cn/opinion/2012-02/09/content_356902.htm (accessed March 29, 2012).

[47] Ibid.

[48]池启演主编.,《最新基层城管工作必备手册 (Chi Qiyan, ed., The Newest Essential Manual for Chengguan Grassroots Work), p.855.

[49] “New rules set to ease China’s property disputes,” Reuters, January 29, 2010.

[50]章仲威,伊穄衛,2009: 中国本命年(Zhang Zhongwei and Yi Jiwei, 2009: China’s Fateful Year, The Chinese Communist Party’s Response to its Crisis of Unrest), p.245.

[51] Zhou Wenting, “Beijing in new crackdown on use of illegal cooking oil,” China Daily (Beijing), July 11, 2011, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2011-07/11/content_12872084.htm (accessed October 31, 2011).

[52] Wu Wencong, “Safety test for all gas links,” China Daily (Beijing), April 13, 2011, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/metro/2011-04/13/content_12315570.htm (accessed October 30, 2011).

[53]吴狄, 城管奥运时可能发动群众’”,新京报(北京) [Chengguan during Olympics may “mobilize the masses,” Beijing News (Beijing)], June 6, 2008, http://epaper.bjnews.com.cn/html/2008-06/20/content_224733.htm?div=-1 (accessed October 11, 2011).

[54] Xie Chuanjiao, “Police support for Yantai chengguan,” China Daily (Beijing), May 29, 2009, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2009-05/29/content_7951683.htm (accessed October 30, 2011).

[55]池启演主编.,《最新基层城管工作必备手册(Chi Qiyan, ed., The Newest Essential Manual for Chengguan Grassroots Work), p.851.

[56]Law on Administrative Penalty, art. 19 (2) stipulates that the organization which enforces administrative law should “be staffed with personnel who are familiar with relevant laws, regulations and rules.”

The Circular of the State Council Regarding the Implementation of Administrative Punishments (1) states that “All localities and departments shall, in line with the principle of combining study with practice, pay close attention to the training of administrative law-enforcing personnel, making the personnel have a good grasp of the Law on Administrative punishments.”

The Circular of the State Council Regarding the Implementation of Administrative Punishments (3) states that local governments should “Strengthen the education of law-enforcing personnel …making them enhance their sense of responsibility and consciousness of acting according to law [and] strengthen the qualifications, certifications and clothing of law-enforcing personnel.”

[57]池启演主编.,《最新基层城管工作必备手册 (Chi Qiyan, ed., The Newest Essential Manual for Chengguan Grassroots Work), p.852.

[58] “Beating death sparks mass protests in central China,” Radio Free Asia, January 10, 2008 http://www.rfa.org/english/china/china-chengguan-20080110.html (accessed October 11, 2011).

[59]Wu Yiyao, “City government tightens rules for chengguan,” China Daily(Beijing), May 5, 2010, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/regional/2010-05/25/content_9888117.htm (accessed October 30, 2011).

[60] Ibid.

[61]张东锋, 网友曝光城管打人不见血教材”,南方都市报 (广州) [Zhang Dongfeng, Netizen exposes textbook on beating without drawing blood,Southern Metropolis Daily(Guangzhou)], July 22, 2009, http://epaper.oeeee.com/A/html/2009-04/22/content_767607.htm (accessed October 11, 2011).

[62] Ibid.

[63]段欣毅, 小贩生存与城管面子’,一对解不开的死结?”人民日报(北京) [“Vendors’ survival and chengguan ‘face’ – A knot which can’t be untied?” People’s Daily, (Beijing)], http://legal.people.com.cn/GB/16003042.html (accessed October 25, 2011).

[64] Lauren Ratcliffe, “Peddling for profit? Beijing’s street vendors,” China.org.cn, June 23, 2011, http://www.china.org.cn/china/2011-06/23/content_22846409.htm (accessed October 22, 2011).

[65] He Bolin, “A case of so near, yet so far and no nearer,” China Daily, (Beijing), August 19, 2008, http://www.cdeclips.com/en/opinion/fullstory.html?id=28241 (accessed October 30, 2011).

[66] Ibid.

[67] “Debate: Chengguan,” China Daily (Beijing), July 18, 2011, http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2011-07/18/content_12921307.htm (accessed October 30, 2011).

[68] Chinese Human Rights Defenders, 城管综合行政执法体制的制度弊端及城管执法对人权的侵害 ”, (“Urban management comprehensive administrative law enforcement system and human rights violations by urban management personnel”), http://wqw2010.blogspot.com/2011/11/blog-post_5808.html (accessed January 13, 2011).

[69] “Urban managers feel the squeeze,” China Daily (Beijing), April 10, 2009, http://english.peopledaily.com.cn/90001/6633963.html (accessed October 30, 2011).

[70]Human Rights Watch interview with Ruan Ying (a pseudonym), a Beijing street vendor, Beijing, December 9, 2010.

[71] “Hackers ’spice up’ chengguan site,” China Daily (Beijing), June 2, 2009, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2009-06/02/content_7961154.htm (accessed October 30, 2011).

[72]Qian Yanfeng, “Street peddlers to be allowed in Nanjing,” China Daily (Beijing), July 17, 2009, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/business/2009-07/17/content_8439804.htm (accessed October 22, 2011).

[73]The hukou or household registration system, which remains in force, limits many social benefits to registered residents of a particular locale. The system has traditionally imposed stringent controls on the movements of rural residents to urban areas, and continues to constitute a discriminatory barrier to rural migrants’ access to employment opportunities and social welfare benefits that are legally granted to those in possession of an urban hukou. International Labor Organization, Equality at Work: Tackling the Challenges. Global Report under the Follow-up of the ILO Declaration of Fundamental Principles and Rights at Work (Geneva: ILO 2007), www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/--dcomm/--webdev/documents/publication/wcms_082607.pdf, pp. 34-35.

[74] Ibid.

[75] Jeremy Chan, “China to Revise Policy Toward Peddlers,” Wall Street Journal Asia (Hong Kong), August 11, 2009, http://online.wsj.com/article/SB124995239841721277.html (accessed October 22, 2011).

[76]Christopher Carothers, “Chengguan Killer Gets Public Sympathy,” Wall Street Journal: China Real Time Report, July 2, 2010, http://blogs.wsj.com/chinarealtime/2010/07/02/chengguan-killer-gets-public-sympathy/ (accessed October 18, 2011).

[77] “Chengguan’s way out,” China Daily (Beijing), March 30, 2010, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2010-03/30/content_9659504.htm (accessed October 30, 2010).

[78] Huang Xiangyang, “Chengguan making our streets safe from vendors,” China Daily (Beijing) April 15, 2011, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2011-04/15/content_12334877.htm (accessed October 30, 2011).

[79] Shirong Chen, “China online game allows people to fight officials,” BBC, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-11599047 (accessed October 19, 2011).

[80]地位缺失 苦于编制 城管困惑我是谁’?”,人民日报(北京) (“Lacking status, suffering from personnel establishment mechanism,Chengguan wonder Who Am I?People’s Daily), October 20, 2011, http://legal.people.com.cn/GB/15953866.html (accessed October 25, 2011).

[81] “Chengguan's bad reputation their own fault,” Global Times (Beijing), May 23, 2011, http://opinion.globaltimes.cn/chinese-press/2011-05/658147.html (accessed October 23, 2011).

[82] Ibid.

[83] Ibid.

[84] “Migrant Worker Protests Resemble MENA Troubles,” Asia Monitor: July 2011 Political Risk Analysis, July 2011, http://www.asia-monitor.com/file/104482/socio-economic -risks-on-the-rise.html (accessed August 12, 2011).

[85]贵州黔西县发生一起因城管纠正违章引发的冲突”,新华网 (“Chengguan enforcement action prompts Guizhou Qianxi conflict”Xinhua News Agency), August 12, 2011, http://big5.xinhuanet.com/gate/big5/gz.xinhuanet.com/2008htm/xwzx/2011-08/12/content_23445761.htm (accessed October 22, 2011).

[86] Zhong Yanling, “Death of disabled vendor sparks riot in Guizhou,” Caixin Online, July 27, 2011, http://english.caixin.cn/2011-07-27/100284567.html (accessed October 18, 2011).

[87] Ibid.

[88]赵国梁, 省委召开常委(扩大)会议研究部署进一步做好社会稳定工作”,贵州日报 (Zhao Guoliang, “ ProvincialStanding Committeemeetingand planto further improvesocial stability,” Guizhou Daily), August 15, 2011, http://222.85.151.57/epaper/gzrb/Content/20110815/Articel01008WD.htm (accessed October 25, 2011).

[89] Ibid.

[90] Ibid.

[91] Law on Administrative Enforcement.

[92]“China enacts laws to regulate administrative power,” Xinhua News Agency, October 27, 2011, http://www.ecns.cn/2011/10-27/3346.shtml (accessed October 28, 2011). The law “provides a legal basis for the guarantee and supervision of the administrative organs performance of administrative functions and powers in accordance with the law, as well as the protection of the legitimate rights and interests of citizens, legal persons and other organizations.”

[93]Law on Administrative Enforcement, art. 39 (3).

[94] Ibid., art. 41

[95] “Chagrin over chengguan,” China Daily (Beijing), May 17, 2007, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/opinion/2007-05/17/content_874453.htm (accessed October 30, 2011).

[96] “New laws stipulate duties of chengguan,” Dongguan Today (Dongguan), August 4, 2009, http://www.dongguantoday.com/newsc.asp?id=3042 (accessed October 11, 2011).

[97] Wu Yiyao, “City government tightens rules for chengguan,”China Daily (Beijing), May 25, 2010, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/regional/2010-05/25/content_9888117.htm (accessed October 30, 2011).

[98] Xu Fan, “Officials to be enlightened by philosophy,” China Daily (Beijing), April 19, 2010, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/metro/2010-04/19/content_9745984.htm (accessed October 30, 2011).

[99] “Law and Order on roller blades in SW China city,” China Daily (Beijing), August 3, 2011, http://usa.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2011-08/03/content_13044144.htm (accessed October 30, 2011).

[100]Human Rights Watch interview with Wang Weiwei, a Beijing street vendor, Beijing, December 6, 2010.

[101] Human Rights Watch interview with Ma Lijun (a pseudonym), a street vendor, Qingdao, Shandong province, December 3, 2010.

[102]宁夏西吉县城管监察队长率众围殴记者被停职”,宁夏日报(银川) [Beating of journalists prompts Ningxia Xiji County chengguan officials suspension,”Ningxia Daily(Yinchuan)], July 6, 2007, http://news.163.com/07/0706/15/3INQPL3O000120GU.html (accessed October 19, 2011).

[103]Ibid.

[104] 记者称在湖南遭城管殴打 向省委书记写求助信 ”, 重庆早报 ( 重庆 ) [“Reporter says he was beaten by Chengguan, appeals to provincial secretary for help,” Chongqing Morning News (Chongqing) ], March 19, 2009, http://fl.cqnews.net/daya/200903/t20090319_3111821.htm (accessed October 19, 2011).

[105]Human Rights Watch interview with Zhang Wei (a pseudonym), a journalist beaten by chengguan officers, Kunming, Yunnan province, September 10, 2010.

[106]家中违建遭城管强拆警察被打生活新报(昆明) [“Family home’s illegally built construction forcibly demolished by chengguan, policeman beaten,” Life Daily News(Kunming)], December 28, 2010, http://www.shxb.net/html/20101228/20101228_266386.shtml (accessed October 19, 2011).

[107] Ibid.

[108] Human Rights Watch interview with Lin Ping (a pseudonym), a victim of a chengguan forced demolition operation, Huangshan, Anhui province, September 10, 2010.

[109]Human Rights Watch interview with Zhang Wei (a pseudonym) a journalist beaten by chengguan officers, Kunming, Yunnan province, September 10, 2010.

[110]Law on Administrative Penalty, art. 31.“Before deciding to impose administrative penalties, administrative organs shall notify the parties of the facts, grounds and basis according to which the administrative penalties are to be decided and shall notify the parties of the rights that they enjoy in accordance with the law.”

Law on Administrative Enforcement, art. 18 (5).“The party concerned shall be notified on the spot of the reasons and basis for taking the administrative compulsory measure and the rights of and remedies available to the party concerned according to law.”

[111]Human Rights Watch interview with Tian Ying (a pseudonym), a street vendor, Shenyang, Liaoning province, August 29, 2010.

[112] Human Rights Watch interview with Cui Aiping (a pseudonym), a street vendor, Beijing, December 9, 2010.

[113] Qian Yanfeng, “Hackers ‘spice up’ chengguan site,” China Daily (Beijing), June 2, 2009, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/cndy/2009-06/02/content_7961154.htm (accessed October 30, 2011).

[114] Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, adopted on July 1, 1979 and effective on March 14, 1997,http://www.china.org.cn/english/government/207319.htm (accessed April 8, 2012), art. 20. An act that a person commits to stop an unlawful infringement in order to prevent the interests of the State and the public, or his own or other persons rights of the person, property or other rights from being infringed upon by the on-going infringement, thus harming the perpetrator, is justifiable defence, and he shall not bear criminal responsibility. If a persons act of justifiable defence obviously exceeds the limits of necessity and causes serious damage, he shall bear criminal responsibility; however, he shall be given a mitigated punishment or be exempted from punishment. If a person acts in defence against an on-going assault, murder, robbery, rape, kidnap or any other crime of violence that seriously endangers his personal safety, thus causing injury or death to the perpetrator of the unlawful act, it is not undue defence, and he shall not bear criminal responsibility.

[115] Ibid.

[116]Law on Administrative Penalty, art. 16. “The State Council or the peoples government of a province, autonomous region or municipality directly under the Central Government that is empowered by the State Council may decide to have an administrative organ exercise other administrative organs power of administrative penalty. However, the power of administrative penalty involving restriction of freedom of person shall only be exercised by the public security organs.”

[117] Criminal Law of the People’s Republic of China, adopted on July 1, 1979, revised on March 14, 1997,http://www.unescap.org/esid/psis/population/database/poplaws/law_china/ch_record010.htm (accessed April 8, 2012), art. 238. Whoever unlawfully detains another person or deprives another person of his personal freedom shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not more than three years, criminal detention, public surveillance or deprivation of political rights. If circumstances of hitting or insulting another person exist, the offender shall be given a heavier punishment.Whoever, by committing the crime mentioned in the preceding paragraph, causes severe bodily injure to another person shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than three years and not more than ten years. If he causes death of another person, he shall be sentenced to fixed-term imprisonment of not less than ten years. If another persons deformity or death is caused by violence, the offender shall be decided a crime and punished according to the provisions of Article 234 or Article 232 of this Law.Whoever, for the purpose of extorting the payment of debts, unlawfully detains or confines another person shall be punished according to the provisions of the preceding two paragraphs.Whoever from the staff of a state organ takes advantage of his office to commit a crime mentioned in the preceding three paragraphs shall be given a heavier punishment according to the provisions of the preceding three paragraphs.

[118]小贩杀死俩城管被判死刑律师辩词催人泪下”,中国青年报(北京)[Vendor sentenced to death for killing two chengguan; A lawyer’s heartbreaking defense, China Youth Daily(Beijing)] May 10, 2007, http://law.cyol.com/content/2011-05/10/content_4405224.htm (accessed October 11, 2011).

[119] Human Rights Watch interview with Ma Dong (a pseudonym), a street vendor, Beijing, June 8, 2010.

[120] Human Rights Watch interview with Liao Rong (a pseudonym), a street vendor, Shenyang, Liaoning province, August 23, 2010.

[121] Ibid.

[122] Human Rights Watch interview with Jiang Jianguo (a pseudonym), a street vendor, Beijing, December 12, 2010.

[123] Ibid.

[124] Ibid.

[125] Human Rights Watch interview with Cai Xue (a pseudonym), a street vendor, Beijing, December 7, 2010.

[126] Ibid.

[127] Ibid.

[128] Ibid.

[129] Law on Administrative Penalty, art. 8. Types of administrative penalty shall include (3) confiscation of illegal gains, or confiscation of unlawful property or things of value.

[130] Law on Administrative Enforcement, art. 23. “Seizure and impoundment shall be limited to the case-related premises, facilities or properties, and no premises, facilities or properties irrelevant to the illegal acts shall be seized or impounded. The daily necessities of citizens and their dependents shall not be seized or impounded.
Premises, facilities or properties of the party concerned, which have been seized by any other state organ according to law, shall not be seized repeatedly.”

Ibid., art. 28. “Under any of the following circumstances, an administrative organ shall timely make a decision on lifting a seizure or impoundment: (1) The party concerned has not committed any illegal act; (2) The seized or impounded premises, facilities or properties are irrelevant to the illegal act; (3) The administrative organ has already made a handling decision on the illegal act, and a seizure or impoundment is no longer necessary; (4) The term of seizure or impoundment has expired; or (5) The measure of seizure or impoundment is otherwise no longer necessary. Where a seizure or impoundment is lifted, the relevant properties shall be returned immediately. If the fresh goods or other perishable properties have been auctioned or sold, the proceeds from the auction or sale shall be refunded. If the selling price is obviously lower than the market price, causing any loss to the party concerned, compensation shall be made for the loss.”

[131]Law on Administrative Enforcement, art. 18.1) Before implementation, a report on implementation shall be submitted to the person in charge of the administrative organ and an approval of implementation shall be obtained. (2) An administrative compulsory measure shall be implemented by two or more law enforcement personnel of the administrative organ. (3) Law enforcement identity certificates shall be produced. (4) The party concerned shall be notified to be present. (5) The party concerned shall be notified on the spot of the reasons and basis for taking the administrative compulsory measure and the rights of and remedies available to the party concerned according to law. (6) The statements and arguments of the party concerned shall be heard. (7) On-site transcripts shall be made. (8) The on-site transcripts shall be signed or sealed by the party concerned and the law enforcement personnel of the administrative organ, and if the party concerned refuses to do so, it shall be noted in the transcripts. 9) If the party concerned is not present, witnesses shall be invited to be present, and the witnesses and the law enforcement personnel of the administrative organ shall sign or seal the on-site transcripts. (10) Other procedures as prescribed by laws and regulations.

[132]The Property Law of the People’s Republic of China adopted at the 5th Session of the10th National People’s Congress of the People’s Republic of China on March 16, 2007 and effective on October 1, 2007, http://www.china.org.cn/china/LegislationsForm2001-2010/2011-02/11/content_21897791.htm (accessed April 8, 2012).

[133]Coldness Kwan, “Property law challenges power of Chengguan?’” China Daily(Beijing), April 3, 2007, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2007-04/03/content_842743.htm(accessed April 8, 2012).

[134] Ibid.

[135]Human Rights Watch interview with Li Jiawen (a pseudonym), a street vendor, Beijing, December 7, 2010.

[136] Ibid.

[137] Ibid.

[138]Human Rights Watch interview with Wang Weiwei (a pseudonym), a street vendor, Beijing, December 6, 2010.

[139]Human Rights Watch interview with Liao Meihua (a pseudonym), a street vendor, Shenyang, Liaoning province, August 29, 2010.

[140] Human Rights Watch interview with Wang Xiangwei (a pseudonym), a street vendor,Beijing, December 9, 2010.

[141] Ibid.

[142]Law on Administrative Penalty, art. 33. “If the facts about a violation of law are well-attested and there are legal basis and if, the citizen involved is to be fined not more than 50 yuan or the legal person or other organization involved is to be fined not more than 1,000 yuan or a disciplinary warning is to be given, such administrative penalty may be decided on the spot. The party shall carry out the decision on administrative penalty in accordance with the provisions of Articles 46, 47 and 48 of this Law.

Ibid., art. 34. “If a law-enforcing officer decides to impose administrative penalty on the spot, he shall show the party his identification papers for law enforcement, fill out an established and coded form of decision for administrative penalty. The form of decision for administrative penalty shall be given to the party on the spot.

In the form of decision for administrative penalty as stipulated in the preceding paragraph shall be clearly recorded the illegal act committed by the party, the basis for administrative penalty, the amount of fine, the time and place, and the title of the administrative organ. Such form shall also be signed or sealed by the law-enforcing officer.

Law-enforcing officers must submit their decisions on administrative penalty made on the spot to the administrative organs where they belong for the record.

[143] Human Rights Watch interview with Xie Dongfeng (a pseudonym), a street vendor, Beijing, December 7, 2010.

[144] Ibid.

[145]小贩杀死俩城管被判死刑律师辩词催人泪下”,中国青年报(北京) [“Vendor sentenced to death for killing two chengguan; A lawyer’s heartbreaking defense,China Youth Daily (Beijing)], May 10, 2007, http://law.cyol.com/content/2011-05/10/content_4405224.htm (accessed October 11, 2011).

[146] Ibid.

[147] Austin Ramzy, “Above the Law? China’s Bully-Boy Enforcement Officers,” Time, May 21, 2009. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1899773,00.html (accessed October 10, 2011).

[148]褚朝新,老总拍摄冲突现场被城管打死”,新京报 (北京) [“Executive photographing conflict scene beaten to death by chengguan,” Beijing News, (Beijing)], January 9, 2008, http://epaper.bjnews.com.cn/html/2008-01/09/content_141399.htm?div=-1 (accessed October 14, 2011).

[149] David Bandurski, “Brutal killing of Wei Wenhua underscores the evils of China’s ‘urban management’ system,” China Media Project blog, January 10, 2008, http://cmp.hku.hk/2008/01/10/814/ (accessed October 14, 2011).

[150]褚朝新, 老总拍摄冲突现场被城管打死”,新京报 (北京) [“Executive photographing conflict scene beaten to death by chengguan,” Beijing News, (Beijing)], January 9, 2008, http://epaper.bjnews.com.cn/html/2008-01/09/content_141399.htm?div=-1 (accessed October 14, 2011).

[151] “Beating death officers jailed,” Shanghai Daily (Shanghai), November 12, 2008, http://en.ce.cn/National/Local/200811/12/t20081112_17360267.shtml (accessed October 30, 2011).

[152] Ibid.

[153]城管小贩冲突路人拍照遭强删小贩受伤至今住院浙江晚报 (浙江) (“Bystanders photos of chengguan, vendor conflict forcibly deleted; vendor still in hospital,” Zhejiang Evening News), July 21, 2011, http://news.sohu.com/20110721/n314055787.shtml (accessed October 7, 2011).

[154] 又见城管暴力之法,这次在深圳 ”, 解放日报 ( 北京 ) [“Once again, chengguan seen violently enforcing the law, this time in Shenzhen,” Liberation Daily (Beijing) ], May 24, 2011, http://www.jfdaily.com/a/2148622.htm (accessed October 11, 2011 ).

[155] Shang Ban, “Officers go on trial for beating,” China Daily (Beijing), February 27, 2010, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-02/27/content_9513114.htm (accessed October 30, 2010).

[156]Jail for five in paralyzing beating,” Shanghai Daily (Shanghai), April 16, 2010.

[157] Human Rights Watch interview with Xie Dongfeng (a pseudonym), a street vendor, Beijing, December 7, 2010.

[158] Human Rights Watch interview with Wang Xiangwei (a pseudonym), a street vendor, Beijing, December 9, 2010.

[159] Human Rights Watch interview with Liao Meihua (a pseudonym), a street vendor, Shenyang,August 29, 2010.

[160] United Nations Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, adopted December 17, 1979, G.A. res. 34/169, annex, 34 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 46) at 186, U.N. Doc. A/34/46 (1979), articles 2, 3 and 7 and associated commentary, available at www2.ohchr.org/English/law/codeofconduct.htm.

[161] Basic Principles on the Use of Force and Firearms by Law Enforcement Officials, adopted by the Eighth United Nations Congress on the Prevention of Crime and Treatment of Offenders, Havana, 27 August to 7 September 1990, U.N. Doc. A/CONF. 144/28/Rev.1 at 112 (1990), General Provisions (1).

[162] Ibid., General Provisions (4).

[163]Ibid., General Provisions (5). Whenever the lawful use of force and firearms is unavoidable, law enforcement officials shall:

( a ) Exercise restraint in such use and act in proportion to the seriousness of the offence and the legitimate objective to be achieved;

( b ) Minimize damage and injury, and respect and preserve human life;

( c ) Ensure that assistance and medical aid are rendered to any injured or affected persons at the earliest possible moment;

( d )Ensure that relatives or close friends of the injured or affected person are notified at the earliest possible moment.

Ibid., General Provisions (6). “Where injury or death is caused by the use of force and firearms by law enforcement officials, they shall report the incident promptly to their superiors, in accordance with principle 22.

[164]Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), adopted December 10, 1948, G.A. Res. 217A(III), U.N. Doc. A/810 at 71 (1948), art. 5.

[165]Ibid., art. 7.

[166]Body of Principles for the Protection of All Persons under Any Form of Detention or Imprisonment (Body of Principles), adopted December 9, 1988, G.A. Res. 43/173, annex, 43 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 49) at 298, U.N. Doc. A/43/49 (1988), principle 21 (2).

[167] Code of Conduct for Law Enforcement Officials, art. 5.

[168]Convention Against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (Convention against Torture), adopted December 10, 1984, G.A. res. 39/46, annex, 39 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 51) at 197, U.N. Doc. A/39/51 (1984), entered into force June 26, 1987, art. 1 (1).

[169]Ibid., art. 16.

[170] International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) , adopted December 16, 1966, G.A. Res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No.16) at 52, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S. 171, entered into force March 23, 1976, art. 9 (1).

[171] Ibid., art. 9 (2).

[172] Ibid., art. 9 (4).

[173]UN Human Rights Committee, General Comment 8, (Sixteenth session, 1982), Compilation of General Comments and General Recommendations Adopted by Human Rights Treaty Bodies, U.N. Doc HRI/GEN/1/Rev.1 (8), 1994, art. 9.

[174]Peoples Police Law of the Peoples Republic of China, adopted on February 28, 1995 and effective on February 28, 1995, art. 9.

[175]Criminal Procedure Law of the Peoples Republic of China, adopted on July 1, 1979 and effective on January 1,1980, art. 59.

[176] Ibid., art.64.

[177] Peoples Police Law, art. 6(1).

[178] Law on Administrative Penalty, art. 62.

[179] The official English-language translation actually refers to provision of “economic detention,” a mistranslation of “economic compensation” (经济赔偿) from the NHRAP’s Chinese-language version. http://www.humanrights.cn/cn/dt/gnbb/t20090413_438873.htm (accessed on October 22, 2011).

[180] National Human Rights Action Plan of China (2009-2010), April 13, 2009, http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/2009-04/13/content_11177126_10.htm (accessed October 22, 2011), chapter two, Guarantee of Civil and Political Rights, (1) Rights of the person, para. 3.

[181] In accordance with Mainland Chinese address formatting.

[182]Number of officers reportedly present at the scene at the time of the incident.

[183]王晓亮, "延安男子一旁"多句嘴"被城管打住院市民:确实打人了," (“In Yan’an, man hospitalized after being beaten up by chengguan for speaking to them; city residents confirm that chengguan did beat him up”), 华商报, March 19, 2012, http://yanan.hsw.cn/system/2012/03/19/051275793.shtml (accessed March 19, 2012).

[184]陈文才, "深圳小贩被城管暴打后扔路边," (“Shenzhen street vendor ditched by the road after being beaten”), 南方都市报, March 18, 2012, http://news.ifeng.com/photo/hdsociety/detail_2012_03/18/13272502_0.shtml (accessed March 18, 2012).

[185]卢斌, "城管局内流动摊贩遭暴打高淳警方正展开调查 ," (“Street vendor brutally beaten within chengguan station; Gaochun police currently carrying out investigations”), 南京晨报, March 17, 2012, http://nj.focus.cn/news/2012-03-17/1849972.html (accessed March 17, 2012).

[186] "市民投诉秀英城管执法踢伤儿童小腿负责人解释," (“City residents lodge a complaint against Xiuying District chengguan for kicking a child’s shin in the process of law enforcement; officials provide an explanation”), 人民网海南视窗, March 12, 2012, http://news.hainan.net/newshtml08/2012w3r12/851778f0.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[187] "海口:摊贩称被打被抢白金项链城管:她暴力抗法", (“Street vendor claims gold necklace snatched and beaten, chengguan: she reacted violently to the law enforcement process”), 海口网, March 10, 2012, http://www.hkwb.net/news/content/2012-03/10/content_662914.htm?node=116 (accessed March 14, 2012).

[188] "口角引发冲突城管市民大打出手," (“Argument sparks off clashes, chengguan and city residents embroiled in physical altercation”), 云南电视台, March 16, 2012, http://news.yntv.cn/content/14/20120306/161656_14_505282.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[189]董加固, "泉州城管伤了摆摊女续伤人是丰泽执法局协管员," (“Quanzhou chengguan injures female street vendor, assailant is Fengze Station’s assistant official”), 东南网, February 7, 2012, http://qz.fjsen.com/2012-02/07/content_7784470.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[190]丁建庭, "三亚城管暴力执法当着8岁孩子面打妈妈超出底线," (“Sanya chengguan reaches a new low in using violence in law enforcement, beats a mother in front of her 8 year old son”), 南方日报, February 21, 2012, http://china.nfdaily.cn/content/2012-02/21/content_38394168.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[191] "城管打小贩致骨折诱其签否认声明," (“Chengguan beats up street vendor, resulting in fracture; attempts to bribe her into signing press release to deny the incident”), 京华时报 , February 5, 2011, http://epaper.jinghua.cn/html/2012-02/05/content_758021.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[192] " 兄弟俩抄近道回家闯进拆违现场 遭城管一顿暴打 ," (“Two brother takes a shortcut on route home and accidentally walks into the demolition of an illegal building, brutally beaten up by chengguan”), 现代快报 , January 18, 2012, http://www.wj001.com/news/shehuireping/2012-01-18/79528.html.

[193]刘晓波, "湘潭城管执法车逆行撞车酿冲突被撞者还被打?," (“Xiangtan city chengguan vehicle drives against the flow of traffic, resulting in car crash, victim of car crash beaten up”), 华声在线, January 6, 2012, http://hunan.voc.com.cn/article/201201/201201060811573115.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[194]张钊、吴广宇、裘萍, "男子被4名城管误认为小贩带走遭殴后被扔出车外," (“Man mistaken for street vendor and taken away and beaten by 4 chengguan, tossed out of car after beatings”), 南方都市报,December 30, 2011, http://news.ifeng.com/society/2/detail_2011_12/30/11674336_0.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[195] "山西临汾霍州便衣城管暴打蜂蜜女," (“‘Plainclothes’ chengguan from Huozhou, Linfen, Shanxi brutally beats up woman selling honey”), 中国网聚焦山西, February 27, 2012, http://news.qq.com/a/20120227/000776.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[196]余金山, "丽江古城城管被指打孕妇官方回应另有原因", (“Chengguan from Lijiang, Gucheng accused of beating up pregnant lady, officials present a different story in their response”), 丽江热线, December 27, 2011, http://www.lijiangtv.com/viewnews-27280-1.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[197]Ibid.

[198]江吉炜, "“醉酒城管连殴两商贩," (“Drunk chengguan beats up two street vendors”), 生活新报, December 20, 2011, http://www.shxb.net/html/20111220/20111220_299710.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[199]江吉炜, "综执大队讨说法这里城管打了我”," (“Seeks explanation at comprehensive administrative bureau, claims ‘a chengguan from this unit hit me’”), 生活新报, December 16, 2011, http://www.shxb.net/html/20111216/20111216_299400.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[200]易方兴, "城管追商贩商贩遭车撞," (“Chengguan chases street vendor, street vendor hit by car”), 新京报, December 3, 2011, http://news.bjnews.com.cn/2011/1203/141026.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[201] "手机拍照惊了粗暴执法城管路人遭暴打被迫写检讨," (“Taking photographs with mobile phone provokes chengguan into violent law enforcement; passerby beaten and forced to write self-criticism apology letter”), 新华网, November 29, 2011, http://news.sctv.com/shxw/shfz/201111/t20111129_903646.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[202]薛萌, "哈尔滨城管与市民起冲突执法人员称执法时被打," (“Harbin chengguan clashes with city residents, chengguan claims he was also beaten”), 黑龙江晨报, November 17, 2011, http://news.sohu.com/20111117/n325901640.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[203] "青岛女子持刀与城管理论被夺刀后遭暴打," (“Qingdao lady brandishes knife when arguing with chengguan, brutally beaten after she is disarmed of the knife”), 城市信报, November 23, 2011, http://www.cqcb.com/cbnews/gngjnews/2011-11-23/459259.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[204] "城管执法下手太重小贩老公被打鼻骨骨折," (“Chengguan too violent in law enforcement? Street vendor’s husband beaten, resulting in a broken nose”), 深圳广电集团, November 7, 2011, http://113.105.76.204/shenzhen/201111/0720372407.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[205] "城管第一天上班脱上衣赤膊暴打女摊贩," (“On his first day of work, chengguan removed his shirt and beat up female street vendor”), 贵州商报, November 14, 2011, http://www.fjsen.com/h/2011-11/14/content_6770625.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[206] "夫妻商贩被砍伤城管外包引质疑," (“Street vendor couple injured with cuts, chengguan outsourcing method questioned”), 深圳广电集团, November 2, 2011, http://www.s1979.com/shenzhen/201111/0220062202.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[207] "河南遂平城管殴打百姓警察制止被殴打致伤," (“Chengguan from Henan, Suiping beat up a civilian, policeman beaten and injured for attempting to stop chengguan”), 云南信息报, November 3, 2011, http://china.nfdaily.cn/content/2011-11/03/content_32543781.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[208] "城管欲暴力强拆违规贴画与店员互殴一团," (“Chengguan uses violent means to remove illegally posted advertisements, embroiled in physical altercation with store attendants”), 黑龙江电视台 , October 20, 2011, http://video.sina.com.cn/p/news/s/v/2011-10-20/120861533671.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[209] "高清:昆明城管打死少年事后竟称打错了”, (“Gaoqing: Kunming chengguan beats young man to death, claims after the incident that they beat up the wrong person”), 人民网, October 8, 2011, http://pic.people.com.cn/GB/31655/15824978.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[210]何洁, "江苏如皋城管被指暴力执法两名被打人员均受伤," (“Jiangsu, Rugao chengguan accused of violent law enforcement, both attacked individuals sustained injuries”), 现代快报, September 22, 2011, http://news.sohu.com/20110922/n320141625.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[211]赵勇, "开车过矣六挨了城管一顿打," (“Beaten up by chengguan while driving through Yiliu”), 生活新报, September 17, 2011, http://www.shxb.net/html/20110917/20110917_291262.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[212]邓建华, "昆明南屏街被打商贩3次病危城管:打人者是公司雇员," (“Vendor beaten at Nanping Street, Kunming slipped into critical condition thrice, Chengguan claims assailant was a subcontractor”), 云南网, September 4, 2011, http://society.yunnan.cn/html/2011-09/04/content_1806995.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[213]周平洋、胡泊, "摊贩城管上演全武行家属称被打得满头是血," (“Physical altercation between chengguan and street vendor, family members claim he was bleeding profusely from the head from the beatings”), 云南网, August 31, 2011, http://news.sohu.com/20110831/n317900795.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[214]周平洋, ""120急救中心牌子挂上电动车"急救哥被城管打出血," (“Automotive repair technician beaten bloody by chengguan for hanging ‘120 Rescue Center’ sign on motorcycle”), 云南网 , August 20, 2011, http://news.yninfo.com/yn/shxw/201108/t20110820_1700693.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[215] "杭州城管打人再调查:协管队员连续打摊贩后脑勺 ," (“Investigations on Hangzhou chengguan beating up a man – assistant official struck street vendor’s head repeatedly”), 今日早报, August, 19, 2011, http://www.nd.chinanews.com/News/xwdc/20110819/127821.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[216]余梁意杨洁, "20余名城管志愿者持械打砸地铁站口小摊贩," (“Dozens of armed chengguan volunteers smash street stalls outside of subway station”), August 17, 2011, 东方早报, http://epaper.dfdaily.com/dfzb/html/2011-08/17/content_518547.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[217], "路桥城管昨整治夜排档时起冲突城管两人被砍伤,一人被砸伤," (“Luqiao chengguan involved in clashes when enforcing law in night market, two chengguan injured from being hacked by knives, one chengguan injured from being smashed by bottles”), 台州商报, August 17, 2011, http://www.taizhou.com.cn/zhuanti/2011-08/17/content_429785.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[218] "流浪歌手街头卖唱遭暴打打人者疑为城管聘用," (“Street musician beaten up for performing on the streets, suspects assailants were hired by chengguan”), 合肥晚报, August 17, 2011, http://news.hf365.com/system/2011/08/17/011089848.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[219] "贵州省黔西县城城管执法冲突引发群众聚集打砸," (“Chengguan from Qianxi, Guizhou face conflict in law enforcement process, sparking off mass backlash and attacks”), 中广网, August 12, 2011, http://www.cankaoxiaoxi.in/a/zhongguodadi/2011/0812/32873.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[220] "取缔占道经营浦口城管和摊贩起冲突," (“Pukou chengguan clash with street vendors in trying to prohibit them from operating on the streets”), 南京晨报 , August 12, 2011, http://www.yangtse.com/news/nj/201108/t20110812_824458.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[221]潍坊昌邑一市民因收摊慢遭城管殴打, (“Weifang, Changyi – street vendors beaten up for closing up their stalls too slowly”), 山东电视台, August 12, 2011, http://www.jiaodong.net/news/system/2011/08/12/011361232.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[222]陈世国, "女摊贩遭4名城管围殴致颅脑损伤当事人称只推搡," (“Female street vendor beaten up by 4 chengguan, resulting in brain trauma; involved chengguan claim they only pushed her”), 海峡都市报, August 10, 2011, http://www.chinanews.com/sh/2011/08-10/3246969.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[223]陈倩, "武汉市洪山城管掀翻残疾人报摊引发数百人围观," (“Hongshan, Wuhan chengguan destroys street vendor’s newspaper stall, drawing a crowd of hundreds of passer-bys”), 楚天都市报讯, August 8, 2011, http://news.sohu.com/20110808/n315720595.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[224]牟张涛,"城管执法与瓜贩起冲突," (“Chengguan clash with melon vendor over law enforcement”), 齐鲁晚报, August 1, 2011, http://sjb.qlwb.com.cn/html/2011-08/01/content_168617.htm?div=-1 (accessed March 14, 2012).

[225]黄勇李忠将,"贵州安顺摊贩死亡疑与城管有关引群众聚集围观," (“Street vendor dies in Anshun, Guizhou, death suspected to be linked to chengguan, draws a crowd of passerbys”), 新华网贵州频道, July 27, 2011, http://news.qq.com/a/20110727/000804.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[226]乔素华张涛, "西夏区城管与一商户发生冲突," (“Xixia district chengguan involved in physical altercation with street vendor”), 宁夏日报, July 27, 2011, http://nx.people.com.cn/GB/192490/15256683.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[227]李晨晨高伟, "昆明金碧路烤红薯小贩与城管起冲突手臂被刀划伤 ," (“Street vendor roasting sweet potatoes on Jinbi Street, Kunming embroiled in physical altercation with chengguan, arm slashed by knife”), 云南网, July 26, 2011, http://news.yninfo.com/yn/shxw/201107/t20110726_1693525.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[228]许琛、何雨殷, "一小贩向城管打招呼遭暴打城管:你是在跟我打招呼么," (“Street vendor brutally beaten up for greeting chengguan; chengguan: ‘are you trying to say hello to me?”), 羊城晚报, July 22, 2011, http://www.ycwb.com/ePaper/ycwb/html/2011-07/22/content_1167537.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[229] "城管小贩冲突路人拍照遭强删小贩受伤至今住院," (“Passerbys taking photographs of clashes between street vendors and chengguan forced to delete photographs; street vendor still hospitalized for injuries”), 钱江晚报, July 21, 2011, http://news.sohu.com/20110721/n314055787.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[230]摊贩称被城管打成骨折城管称有推搡没有殴打,” (“Street vendor claims chengguan beat him up, resulting in fractures; chengguan claims he only pushed but did not beat him”), 浙江在线, July 12, 2011, http://zjnews.zjol.com.cn/05zjnews/system/2011/07/12/017672926.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[231], “超市店主被城管协勤打伤西山区成立调查组调查此事,” (“Supermarker owner beaten up by chengguan, Xishan city sets up panel to investigate the incident”), 云南网, July 10, 2011, http://society.yunnan.cn/html/2011-07/10/content_1710319.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[232]袁沛民, “商户与城管起冲突劝架者被女城管咬伤手指,” (“Merchant and chengguan involved in physical altercation, person attempting to mediate gets bitten on the fingers by female chengguan”), 齐鲁晚报, July 5, 2011, http://news.qq.com/a/20110705/000306.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[233]袁小锋, “夫妻围观城管执法时打电话遭质问被打伤,” (“Couple making a phone call while watching a law enforcement incident gets questioned and beaten up by chengguan”), 华商报, July 4, 2011 http://news.sina.com.cn/s/p/2011-07-04/015822749824.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[234]曹卢杰, "六旬卖菜老汉与城管队员冲突大拇指被扯脱臼," (“Vegetable seller in his 60s clashes with chengguan, thumb gets dislocated”), 扬子晚报, June 29, 2011, http://www.chinanews.com/fz/2011/06-29/3144670.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[235]朱雅馨, "城管将商贩打伤辩称打了人是为搞工作," (“Chengguan beats up street vendor, claims that it is part of their job”), 京华网, July 1, 2011 http://www.chinavalue.net/story/241487.aspx (accessed March 14, 2012).

[236]牛泰、赵牧, "老河口城管与菜贩发生冲突警方介入调查," (“Laohekou chengguan clashes with vegetable street venor, police involved in investigations”), 楚天快报, June 28, 2011, http://hb.qq.com/a/20110628/000228.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[237]邢台:巨鹿县城管粗暴执法致一女子头部受伤," (“Julu county chengguan use violent means to enforce laws, causing a woman to sustain head injuries”), 长城网 , June 28, 2011, http://heb.hebei.com.cn/system/2011/06/28/011244191.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[238]黄超, "城管闹市执法起冲突," (“Chengguan law enforcement measures leads to clashes”), 银川新闻网 , June 23, 2011, http://www.ycen.com.cn/content/2011-06/23/content_957235.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[239]董玖永, "城管参与拆迁村民受伤住院," (“Chengguan involved in demolition and relocation, villagers hospitalized for injuries”), 生活新报, June 17, 2011, http://www.shxb.net/html/20110617/20110617_282248.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[240] "重庆城管打伤小贩有图有真相”," (“Chongqing chengguan beats up and injures street vendor, photographic evidence available”), 山西晚报, June 17, 2011, http://news.sxrb.com/shxw/1192763.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[241]申时勋, "镇雄城管锁轮胎引发冲突5人受伤," (“Zhenxiong chengguan clamps wheel, sparks off clashes, resulting in 5 people sustaining injuries”), 云南网, June 16, 2011, http://society.yunnan.cn/html/2011-06/16/content_1666377.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[242] "18岁高考生卖气球与长春朝阳城管起冲突都说被打了 ," (“18 year old high school student selling balloons clashes with chengguan in Changchun, Chaoyang, each claims to have been beaten”), 新浪教育, May 15, 2011, http://news.365future.com/Html/201106/15/20110615085649.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[243]冯炜程, "山东泗水城管打死六旬老人官方称其激动死”," (“Chengguan from Sishui, Shandong beat elderly man in his 60s to death, officials claim that he died from over-agitation”), 大众网, May 9, 2011, http://news.sohu.com/20110609/n309756942.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[244]周鹏, "两兄妹替父看摊遭城管毒打被迫带伤高考," (“Siblings tending over father’s stall subject to brutal beatings, have to take high school examinations while injured”), 西安晚报 , June 6, 2011, http://www.qingdaonews.com/gb/content/2011-06/06/content_8809178.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[245] "摆地摊夫妇遭遇榆林城管粗暴执法三轮车被强扣," (“Street vendors subject to violent law enforcement measures by Yulinchengguan, tricycle confiscated”), 榆林新闻, June 3, 2011, http://yl.hsw.cn/system/2011/06/03/050973989.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[246]邵婧, "男子误闯拆违现场遭城管围殴怀孕妻下跪求饶," (“Man beaten up by chengguan for accidentally walking into demolition site, his pregnant wife kneels to beg for mercy”), 中安在线, June 2, 2011, http://news.qq.com/a/20110602/000486.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[247]陈辉, "城管协管员打小贩后道歉承认打人再威胁小贩," (“Chengguan assistant officer apologizes for beating up street vendor, admits to threatening and beating up street vendor”), June 1, 2011, 南方都市报, http://news.ycwb.com/2011-06/01/content_3449798.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[248] "北京路:城管商贩发生冲突商贩横躺路中间," (“Chengguan and street vendors clash, street vendor lies down across the middle of the street”),云视网讯, May 31, 2011, http://news.yntv.cn/content/18/20110531/160012_18_305631.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[249]林刚, "清理非法早市起争执城管"脱衣"掌掴小贩," (“Cleaning of illegal market sparks off argument; chengguan removes shirt and slaps street vendor”),半岛都市报, May 28, 2011, http://news.bandao.cn/news_html/201105/20110528/news_20110528_1334896.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[250]舒均, "城管执法车逼停出租掌掴的哥打人"城管被开除," (“Chengguan forced vehicle to stop and slapped motorist; chengguan involved in beating has been fired”), 楚天都市报, May 27, 2011, http://hb.qq.com/a/20110527/000311.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[251]洪晓红、孙权, "无锡通报城管打人事件处理结果:开除两城管队员," (“Wuxi announces that chengguan involved in beating incident have been dealt with: two chengguan fired”), 中新网, May 31, 2011, http://news.xinhuanet.com/2011-05/31/c_121475899.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[252]常红浩, "目击者称流浪歌手遭城管围殴引数百人围堵," (“Eyewitness claims the beating of street musician by chengguan triggered a crowd of hundreds of people forming around the site of the incident”), 云南网, May 25, 2011, http://news.sina.com.cn/s/2011-05-25/072622525597.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[253] "日照城管小贩冲突各执一词小贩:还没摆摊就被打," (“Rizhao chengguan clash with street vendors, each side provides different narratives of incident; street vendor claims, they beat us up even before we set up our stall”),半岛都市报 , May 18, 2011, http://news.bandao.cn/news_html/201105/20110518/new s_20110518_1309197.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[254]张书舟, "目睹城管殴打卖杨梅大爷成都美女挡车要城管道歉," (“Eyewitnesses of chengguan beating up elderly man selling bayberries, Chengdu women obstruct vehicle and demand for an apology”),南方都市报, May 16, 2011, http://nf.nfdaily.cn/nfdsb/content/2011-05/16/content_24121494.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[255]佟川, "拍照影响了我们执法," (“Photography affects our enforcement of the law”), 华商版, May 14, 2011, http://hsb.hsw.cn/2011-05/14/content_8067425.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[256]李婷, "城管与菜贩到底谁打谁,(“Chengguan and vegetables street vendor – whom attacked whom?”), 北海讯, May 15, 2011, http://news.xinmin.cn/rollnews/2011/05/15/10735638.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[257]朱志庚, 邵国栋, "网传城管持钢管殴人城管与店主各执一词," (“Shared on the internet: ‘chengguan beats up people with steel bars’; storeowner and chengguan provide different narratives of incident”), 中国新闻网, May 27, 2011, http://www.chinanews.com/sh/2011/05-27/3072042.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[258]黄世杨, "摆摊时间引争议小贩称遭城管鞭抽," (“Argument over timing street vendors can set up stalls, street vendor claims to have been whipped by chengguan”), 云南网 , May 9, 2011, http://society.yunnan.cn/html/2011-05/09/content_1601858.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[259]张国强, 霍仕明, "辽宁辽阳城管被指打死人:打人者模仿死者倒地," (“Chengguan from Liaoyang, Liaoning accused of beating a person to death; assaliant mimics deceased and also falls to the ground”), 人民网, May 12, 2011, http://news.ifeng.com/mainland/detail_2011_05/12/6349503_0.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[260]石明磊, "摩的车主称遭城管执法车轧脚," (“Motorist claims chengguan drove over and crushed his foot”), 新京报 , April 30, 2011, http://news.bjnews.com.cn/2011/0430/117170.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[261]张东方, "收破烂者与城管起争执后倒地受伤事发天元区," (“Tianyuan district: refuse picker embroiled in physical altercation with chengguan, falls to the ground from injuries”), 株洲晚报, April 30, 2011, http://www.zhuzhouwang.com/portal/xw/zzxw/msht/webinfo/2011/04/30/1302589292396517.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[262]强晓军, "渭南城管执法打人还推倒孕妇记者现场调查真相 ," (“Weinan chengguan beats up people in the process of law enforcement, pushes pregnant woman to the floor; journalist arrive at the scene of the incident to investigate”), 陕西电视台《第一新闻》, April 29, 2011, http://news.cnwest.com/content/2011-04/29/content_4510473.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[263]杨清竹、周杨宁, "福建云霄一女小贩与城管争执后入院自称被打伤," (“Fujian, Yunxiao – Female street vendor hospitalized after physical altercation with chengguan, claims to have been injured from beatings”), 东南网, May 10, 2011, http://www.fjsen.com/d/2011-05/10/content_4490477_2.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[264]龚芳柳, "长沙城管与市民冲突引数百人围观 1男牙被打掉 ," (“Changsha chengguan clash with city residents, attracting crowds of hundreds of people; 1 man’s teeth fall off from beatings”), 潇湘晨报, April 29, 2011, http://legal.gmw.cn/2011-04/29/content_1904627_4.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[265]廖世杰, "江西交警家中遭城管暴打左眼失明," (“Jiangxi traffic police brutally beaten by chengguan in his own home, resulting in blindness in left eye”), 新法制报, January 10, 2011, http://jiangxi.jxnews.com.cn/system/2012/01/10/011872512.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[266]雷涛, "侯区城管执法遇阻与商户冲突致多人受伤 ," (“Wuhou city chengguan face obstruction to law enforcement attempt, clash with merchants, resulting in numerous people sustaining injuries”), 成都全搜索新闻网, April 22, 2011, http://news.chengdu.cn/content/2011-04/22/content_699111.htm?node=1760 (accessed March 14, 2012).

[267]蒋雨龙, "面摊占道经营城管执法打伤两人目击者证实," (“Chengguan enforces law upon noodle stall obstructing path, beats up and injures two people, eyewitnesses confirm veracity of incident”), 重庆商报, April 19, 2011, http://www.cq.xinhuanet.com/news/2011-04/19/content_22555662.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[268]男子挡路遭城管殴打九亭道路被堵近6个小时,” (“Man beaten up by chengguan for obstructing road, Jiuting street congested for nearly 6 hours”), 东方网, April 15, 2011, http://news.qq.com/a/20110415/000520.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[269]刘珍妮, "商贩遭城管保安用木板和砖头殴打," (“Merchant attacked by chengguan and security officials wielding wooden planks and bricks”), 新京报, April 14, 2011, http://epaper.bjnews.com.cn/html/2011-04/14/content_220672.htm?div=-1 (accessed March 14, 2012).

[270], “女商户称在城管办公室被打城管反驳称是商户动,” (“Female merchant claims she was beaten in the chengguan bureau; chengguan rebuts that the merchant attacked first”), 现代快报, April 11, 2011, http://news.ifeng.com/society/2/detail_2011_04/07/5589710_0.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[271]杜晓, “城管执法与商户起冲,”(“Chengguan and merchants clash over law enforcement”),安徽商, April 7, 2011, http://ah.anhuinews.com/system/2011/04/07/003918199.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[272]韩凯, "要想摆摊就得交钱? 周村城管执法卷入纠纷," (“Pay if you wish to set up your stall; Zhouchun chengguan embroiled in dispute”), 鲁中网, April 3, 2011, http://news.lznews.cn/2011/0403/431498.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[273]韩泽祥, 吴桥:退休职工沿街卖地图遭城管殴打," (“Wuqiao: retired worker selling maps on the streets gets beaten up by chengguan”), 河北新闻网, April 1, 2011, http://hebei.hebnews.cn/2011-04/01/content_1822925.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[274]李春晓, "郑州城管殴打60岁老人街边洗车店疑遭遇城管报复," (“Zhengzhou chengguan beats up 60 year old man, neighbouring carwash store suspects it was target of chengguan revenge”), 东方今报 , March 25, 2011, http://henan.sina.com.cn/news/s/2011-03-25/63-63978.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[275]张太凌, "城管游商冲突十余人受伤," (“Chengguan and street vendors clash, more than 10 injured”), 新京报, March 23, 2011, http://epaper.bjnews.com.cn/html/2011-03/23/content_213416.htm(accessed March 14, 2012).

[276]张培君, "网曝济源暴力征地城管围殴群众官方称不会暴力征地," (“Internet expose – Chengguan beat up a crowd in a violent land acquisition in Jiyuan, officials claim that they do not resort to violence in land acquisitions”), 大河网,April 2, 2011, http://henan.sina.com.cn/news/s/2011-04-02/63-65245.html(accessed March 14, 2012).

[277]赵守诚, “张贴招租广告起冲突城管和打成一团,” (“Posting of rental advertisements spark clashes, chengguan and proprietor embroiled in physical altercation ”), 现代快报, March 1, 2011, http://news.163.com/11/0301/03/6U1FPE8U00014AED.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[278], “一部手机引发冲突延安市城管人员动手打人?” (“A mobile phone sparks off clash; Did Yanan city chengguan beat people up?”), 西部, February 16, 2011, http://news.cnwest.com/content/2011-02/16/content_4133778.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[279]于宝,“ 违规摆摊卖馒头被城管打成重伤,”(“Street vendor selling buns illegally beaten and severely injured by chengguan”), 长春晚报, January 21, 2011, http://www.jlsina.com/news/ccwb/2011-1-24-/8647.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[280]清场迎花市城管摊贩冲突,” (“Chengguan attempt to clear area for flower market, clash with street vendors”), 南方网, January 20, 2011, http://gd.news.sina.com.cn/news/2011/01/20/1094333.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[281]摊贩与城管起冲突致肋骨被打断城管称遭围攻,” (“Street vendors and chengguan clash, resulting in broken ribs, chengguan claims to have been beaten up”), 重庆晚, January 16, 2011, http://news.ycwb.com/2011-01/16/content_3283702.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[282], “白山城管与店主起冲突双方都称受伤了,” (“Baishan chengguan clash with storeowner, both parties claim to be injured”), 南方都市, January 8, 2011, http://www.jlsina.com/news/xwhb/2011-1-11/6083.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[283]史寅, “张江镇:小贩城管发生冲突多人受伤,”(“Zhangjiang county: Street vendors and chengguan clash; many people injured”), 东方早, January 5, 2011, http://www.news365.com.cn/xwzx/sh/201101/t20110105_2926269.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[284]夏德锐, “户冲突城管老公带身着制服男子来砸,”(“Clash with merchant, chengguan’s husband summons uniformed men to destroy the store”), 云南信息, January 1, 2011, http://china.nfdaily.cn/content/2011-01/01/content_18950156.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[285]周晓, “家中违建遭城管强拆警察被打,”(“Illegal construction in policeman’s home demolished by chengguan, policeman beaten up by chengguan”), 生活新, December 28, 2010, http://www.shxb.net/html/20101228/20101228_266386.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[286]林春长, “城管与小贩发生肢体冲突 近百人围住车子讨说法,” (“Physical altercation between chengguan and street vendors; close to a hundred people surround the car to reason with chengguan”), 福州新闻网, December 25, 2010, http://news.fznews.com.cn/shehui/2010-12-25/20101225je0pd2jvba103918.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[287]教师围观城管执法遭暴打事后被弃山野,” (“Teacher beaten up for look at law enforcement incident; abandoned in the wilderness afterwards”), 青岛新闻网, December 23, 2010, http://www.qingdaonews.com/gb/content/2010-12/23/content_8611261.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[288]上海城管群殴邮政订报点人员旁观居民亦被打,” (“Shanghai chengguan beat up postal worker, residents witnessing the incident also beaten up”), 东方网, December 21, 2010, http://news.qq.com/a/20101221/001978.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[289]马翔宇, “安徽亳州老汉与城管发生冲突后被警车带走,” (“Elderly man from Anhui, Haozhou taken away by police car after clashing with chengguan”),中安在线, December 19, 2010, http://news.sohu.com/20101219/n278389603.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[290]刘权锋, “汉中:拒交停车费城管车内暴打女收费员,” (“Hanzhong City: Refusing to pay parking fee, chengguan beats up female parking attendant in the car”), 西部网, December 17, 2010, http://news.cnwest.com/content/2010-12/17/content_3905031.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[291]虹口城管围殴15岁少年城管:摊主棍棒驱打在先,” (“Chengguan in Hongkou beats up 15 year old youth, chengguan claims street vendor had hit them with a stick first”), 东方早报, December 11, 2010, http://sh.sina.com.cn/news/2010-12-11/0311165512.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[292]杨振东、邓,“三亚城管围殴游客续:打人者道歉警方立案调,”(“Aftermath of Sanya chengguan beating up tourists; assailant apologizes, police investigating the case”), 南海网, December 15, 2010, http://news.xinhuanet.com/politics/2010-12/15/c_12884167_2.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[293], “ 商贩:城管打人了城管:被商贩扇巴掌,”(“Street vendors claim they were beaten by chengguan; chengguan claim street vendors slapped them”), 现代快报, December 10, 2010, http://news.163.com/10/1210/02/6NGR05V100014AED.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[294]杨梅, “3名城管被指打人六旬卖糕阿婆受伤入,” (“3 chengguan accused of beating up elderly street vendor selling cakes, elderly lady in her mid 60s hospitalized for injuries”), 东南网, November 28, 2010, http://www.fjsen.com/d/2010-11/28/content_3880871_2.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[295]于忠虎, “男子驾三轮撞树身亡家属称遭城管人员追赶,” (“Man dies from crashing tricycle into tree, family claims he was chased by chengguan”), 西安晚报, November 26, 2010, http://xian.qq.com/a/20101126/000003.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[296]仪陇县城管扬言:’城管打人不犯法’!” (“Yilong county chengguan issues threat ‘it is not a crime for chengguan to beat up people’”), 南海网, November 24, 2010, http://www.637600.com/html/91/n-18291.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[297]呼延,呼市玉泉区城管与商户发生冲突监控录像记录全过程,” (“Chengguan in Hohot city, Yuquan district clash with merchants, entire incident recorded by surveillance video”), 新华网, November 18, 2010, http://www.westtimes.com/2010/1118/5OMDAwMDAzMDE5OA_3.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[298]任国勇郭一, “城管驱赶菜摊抢秤扯断卖菜老太无名,”(“In a tussle while chasing off street vendors, chengguan breaks off elderly vegetable seller’s 4th finger”), 扬子晚报, November 11, 2010, http://news.ifeng.com/society/2/detail_2010_11/11/3069638_0.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[299] Cheng Yingqi, “Chengguan under fire for slapping old man,” China Daily, November 15, 2011, http://www.chinadaily.com.cn/china/2010-11/15/content_11547380.htm(accessed March 14, 2012).

[300]马晓鹏, “孕妇称遭城管踢踹面临流产执法部门称不知情,” (“Pregnant lady suffers from miscarriage after being kicked by chengguan, law enforcement agency claims to be unaware of incident”), 城市晚报, November 10, 2010, http://news.qq.com/a/20101110/000127.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[301]夏德锐, “小贩称跪地求饶仍遭多名城管殴打手脚骨,” (“Street vendor kneels to beg for mercy, beaten by numerous chengguan, sustained fractures in arms and legs”),云南信息, November 9, 2011, http://nf.nfdaily.cn/ynxx/content/2010-11/09/content_17413193.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[302]邢阳王国, “店主与城管因罚款发生冲突男子因手持相机被打,” (“Storeowner and chengguan clash over fine, man beaten for holding a camera”), 新文化报, November 5, 2011, http://news.sohu.com/20101105/n277165404.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[303]陈洁, “城管当街"收拾"小摊贩游客欲拍照相机被没收,” (“Chengguan beats up street vendor; tourist’s camera confiscated for filming incident”), 春城晚, October 25, 2010, http://law.cyol.com/content/2010-10/25/content_3886143.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[304], “陕西乾县5名城管当街打伤三轮摩托司机,”(“5 chengguan from Shaanxi, Qianxian beat up tricycle motorist”), 深圳新闻, October 25, 2010, http://news.sznews.com/content/2010-10/25/content_5023907.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[305]便利店店主称拆迁时被城管打伤对方否认,”(“Owner of convenience store injured by chengguan during demolition; chengguan denies beating storeowner”), 贵州都市, October 22, 2010, http://society.ynet.com/view.jsp?oid=70581202 (accessed March 14, 2012).

[306]李岚, “群众一生气掀了执法车执法时打伤小贩夫妻俩,负有领导责任的科长、副科长被免职,” (“Angry mob flips over law enforcement vehicle, chengguan beats up street vendor couple when enforcing law, chief and deputy chief of chengguan bureau dismissed”), 河南热线, October 21, 2010, http://newpaper.dahe.cn/dhb/html/2010-10/21/content_401877.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[307]邓振福, “桂林男子与城管发生冲突男子住院市容局垫医药,” (“Guilin man and chengguan involved in physical altercation, chengguan station pays for part of man’s hospital bill”),南国早, October 25, 2010, http://news.gxnews.com.cn/staticpages/20101026/newgx4cc60629-3356677.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[308] 吴勇 , “ 郑州执法局深夜强拆民房 残疾房主被扔到 30 公里外 ,” (“Zhengzhou law enforcement station demolishes a house in the middle of the night, disabled homeowner thrown into a ditch 30 km away”), 河南商报 , October 19, 2010, http://news.dahe.cn/2010/10-19/100497368.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[309]谷岳飞, “城管局长当街殴打小姑娘神秘力量致事态平,”(“ Head of chengguan station beats up young lady on the streets, mysterious force smoothes incident over”),扬子晚报, October 20, 2010, http://xw.chinawestnews.net/system/2010/10/20/010316834.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[310]程权, “城管与小贩起冲突后怕被拍强行拖走玩手机保安,” (“Chengguan afraid of being photographed after a clash with street vendor, security guard using mobile phone taken away by force”), 都市时报, October 15, 2010, http://news.sohu.com/20101015/n275738177.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[311], “郑州城管与摊贩冲突遭群众围堵拔刀"威慑,” (“Zhengzhou chengguan clashes with street vendors, chengguan uses knives to intimidate crowd gathered around the incident”), 河南商报, October 11, 2010, http://news.163.com/10/1011/03/6IMDVVVJ00011229.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[312]吴睿, “城管协管员被指打伤兼职大学生,” (“Chengguan manager accused of beating up a college student working part-time”), 长江商, October 3, 2010, http://news.cnxianzai.com/2010/10/293334.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[313]卿荣波郭晓, “西安十余名城管围殴商户群众掀翻执法车,” (“More than ten Xian chengguan beat up merchant, crowds overturn law enforcement vehicle”),华商, September 23, 2010, http://news.jcrb.com/jxsw/201009/t20100923_448054.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[314]郭志昆, “河北顺平县父子俩称一天内被城管殴打两次,” (“Father and son from Hebei, Shunping County claim to be beaten by chengguan twice in one day”), 燕赵都市报, September 28, 2010, http://yanzhao.yzdsb.com.cn/system/2010/09/28/010720599.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[315]王文凯, “郑州5名便衣城管暴打女小贩抢走8箱石榴,”(“5 plainclothes Zhenzhou chengguan brutally beat up female street vendor, snatched 8 cartons of pomegranate”), 大河商报, September 21, 2010, http://news.china.com/zh_cn/social/1007/20100921/16157044.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[316], “街道城管办执法抄起啤酒瓶就打经营户脸上缝十针,” (“Chengguan patrolling the streets attacked store owner with beer bottle, store owner’s face injuries required ten stitches”), 红网, September 19, 2010, http://hn.rednet.cn/c/2010/09/19/2071393.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[317]郑向东, “十余城管持钢管围攻蔬菜店主民警鸣枪制止,” (“More than a dozen steel bar wielding chengguan attack vegetable store owner, police fired shots to stop the attack”),吉林市, September 16, 2010, http://society.people.com.cn/GB/12737553.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[318]王奕, “城管被指与小店老板冲突”, (“Chengguan accused of clashes with storeowner”), 京华时报, September 15, 2010, http://news.163.com/10/0915/02/6GJC9OLK00014AED.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[319]杨小柏, “早报女记者被打后续:打人城管被停职暂调离岗位,” (“Chengguan suspended for beating up female journalist”), 南国早报, September 11, 2010, http://news.ngzb.com.cn/staticpages/20100911/newgx4c8ba6d7-2099185.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[320]曹卢杰, “男子摆摊被城管没收找城管说理成"血人," (“Street vendor’s stall confiscated by chengguan, given bloody beating for attempting to reason with chengguan”), 新华报, September 13, 2010, http://news.xinmin.cn/shehui/2010/09/13/6795444.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[321]陈静涛, “摆摊男子与城管发生冲突被打骨折,” (“Street vendor clashes with chengguan, beaten and sustained fracture”), 华商报, September 3, 2010, http://news.sina.com.cn/s/2010-09-03/021821028507.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[322]季娜娜, “摊贩夫妇被城管打折鼻梁百多斤葡萄被没收,” (“Street vendor couple beaten by chengguan, nose broken and more than a hundred kilograms of grapes confiscated”), 扬子晚报, September 13, 2010, http://pic.people.com.cn/GB/159992/159994/12712517.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[323]陈希, “城管临时工酒后执法施暴打人被制服,” (“Subcontracted chengguan “enforces law” while intoxicated, subdued after violently beating people”), 楚天都市报, August 29, 2010, http://news.ifeng.com/society/2/detail_2010_08/29/2349446_0.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[324]王兴渠、胡新成陈亚, “阳逻摊贩夫妇被20多个城管围殴十多分钟?” (“Yangluo street vendor couple beaten up by more than 20 chengguan for over 10 minutes?”), 长江商报, August 26, 2010, http://hb.qq.com/a/20100826/000571.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[325]张斌, “商贩:城管将我一家打伤城管回应称小贩先动手,” (“Vendor: Chengguan beat up my entire family; chengguan’s rebuttal: the vendor attacked him first”), 扬子晚报, August 25, 2010, http://news.sohu.com/20100825/n274447762.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[326] 吴勇 , “ 郑州市民要求城管 应人性化执法 反遭一顿暴打 ,” (“Zhengzhou residents implore for chengguan to enforce law humanely, gets brutally beaten instead”), 大河报 , August 24, 2010, http://news.dahe.cn/2010/08-24/100442751.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[327]张祥龙涛, “便衣城管打伤小贩及围观市民态度粗暴被停岗,” (“Plainclothes chengguan beats up and injures street vendor and passer-bys, suspended for violent behavior”), 潇湘晨报, August 20, 2010, http://hunan.voc.com.cn/article/201008/201008201115358641.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[328]张皓,武汉商户城管冲突:协管员被刺女店主被烫伤,” (“Conflict in Wuhan between shopkeeper and chengguan: chengguan stabbed and female storeowner scalded”), 楚天都市报, August 6, 2010 www.hb.xinhuanet.com/newscenter/2010-08/06/content_20548415.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[329]华敏, “女摊贩被打路人劝架被围殴城管:不是我们的,” (“Female street vendor beaten, passer-by trying to mediate also beaten, chengguan claims incident does not involve them”),福州晚报, August 6, 2010, http://www.fjsen.com/d/2010-08/06/content_3583477.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[330]许洋, “菜贩遭城管围殴后服下敌敌畏目前仍未脱离危险,” (“Vegetable seller consumes poison after being beaten by several chengguan, currently still in critical condition”), 楚天都市报, August 5, 2010, http://news.sina.com.cn/s/2010-07-29/172420785335.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[331]卜瑜, "女子拍摄城管执法手机被抢嘴部胸部大腿有轻微伤," ("Woman who filmed chengguan in law enforcement incident on mobile phone had phone snatched, suffered injuries on mouth, chest and thighs "), 广州日报, March 4, 2011, http://tech.hexun.com/2011-03-04/127718333.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[332]刘士朋, “南昌城管强拆广告牌被指暴力执法否认打人,” (“Nanchang chengguan accused of violent law enforcement in demolition of billboard, denies beating up people”),大江网, July 29, 2010, http://news.sohu.com/20100729/n273861852.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[333]李丹, “城管与瓜贩争执引发群殴双方多人受伤,” (“Dispute between chengguan and melon vendor results in mass physical altercation, many injured from both sides”), 市场星报, July 29, 2010, http://www.ncnews.com.cn/xwzx/fzxw/t20100729_605415.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[334]彭科峰, “镇政府疑违法强挖道路引冲突公司员工被城管殴打,” (“Company suspected by town government of illegal roadwork, resulting in clashes, employees of company beaten by chengguan ”), 京华时报, July 28, 2010, http://society.huanqiu.com/roll/2010-07/964497.html (accessed March 14, 2012).

[335]张皓, “城管派出所内打断占道经营小贩肋骨,” (“Street vendor beaten up by Chengguan at station for obstructing pathway with stall, ribs broken”), 楚天都市报, July 24, 2010, http://news.sina.com.cn/s/2010-07-24/062520747603.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[336]胡铁军, “城管执法人员与夜宵摊主发生冲突致8人受伤,” (“Physical altercation between night vendor and chengguan, 8 injured”), 广西新闻网, July 16, 2010, http://news.qq.com/a/20100716/001562.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[337]田霖, “商户因口角当街遭城管暴打数名执法者旁观”, (“Merchant beaten after argument with chengguan, while several others look on”), 东方今报, July 15, 2010, http://news.sina.com.cn/s/2010-07-15/045920681589.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[338]刘洋, 商贩称遭20多名城管队员围殴,” (“Street vendors beaten up by more than 20 chengguan“), 新文化报, July 13, 2010, http://news.sina.com.cn/s/2010-07-13/015220663078.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[339]环卫工人被城管撞伤肇事司机称不知情,” (“Sanitation worker run over by chengguan, driver claims to be unaware of incident”), 央视《今日说法》, July 29, 2010, http://news.sina.com.cn/s/2010-07-29/172420785335.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[340]张志杰, “男子被多名穿城管制服者罚款砸车欲报警遭打,” (“Man fined and had his car smashed by chengguan, beaten when he wanted to call the police”), 西安晚报网络版, July 9, 2010, http://news.southcn.com/c/2010-07/09/content_13610360.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[341]廖桥、严斯林, 商户城管起冲突争执中双方受伤,” (“Merchants and chengguan involved in conflict, both parties injured”),楚天金报, July 9, 2010, http://news.sina.com.cn/o/2010-07-09/044017777964s.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

[342]李亚坤, 龙岗:小贩已交租仍被整治多人遭城管掀摊殴打,” (“Longgang: street vendors hassled despite having paid rent, many had their stalls wrecked and were beaten up”), 南方都市报, 7 July 2010, http://nf.nfdaily.cn/nfdsb/content/2010-07/07/content_13533744.htm (accessed March 14, 2012).

[343] " 市民说公道话遭城管喷辣椒水续 : 当事人被停职 ", (“Citizens pepper sprayed for speaking up for justice; chengguan involved suspended”) 现代快报 , July 2, 2010, http://www.66law.cn/news/39973.aspx (accessed March 14, 2012).

[344]河南登封数十城管殴打店主姐弟指挥者称打死没事,” (“Dozens of chengguan in Dengfeng, Henan beat up shopkeeper and her siblings, ordered that it would not be an issue if they were beaten to death”), 郑州晚报, July 1, 2010, http://finance.ifeng.com/city/cskx/20100701/2363481.shtml (accessed March 14, 2012).

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