China’s new leadership assumed power in November, ending the decade-long reign of Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao. China’s citizens had no say in the selection of their new leaders, highlighting that, despite the country’s rapid modernization, the government remains an authoritarian one-party system. The government curbs freedom of expression, association, and religion, and controls all judicial institutions. It censors the press and enforces highly repressive policies in ethnic minority areas in Tibet, Xinjiang, and Inner Mongolia. At the same time, citizens are increasingly prepared to challenge authorities over issues such as land seizures, forced evictions, abuses of power by corrupt cadres, discrimination, and economic inequalities.