Political Freedoms in Kazakhstan

[1] DVK is an acronym that derives from the Russian, Demokraticheskii Vybor Kazahstana (Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan). As of this writing it has legal status only as a nonprofit organization because the government has denied it registration as a political party.

[2]International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 52, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 999 U.N.T.S. 171, entered into force Mar. 23, 1976.

[3] Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties, entered into force Jan. 27, 1980, 1155 U.N.T.S. 331, art. 18.

[4] Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners, adopted Aug. 30, 1955, by the First U.N. Congress on the Prevention of Crime and the Treatment of Offenders, U.N. Doc. A/CONF/611, annex I, E.S.C. res. 663C, 24 U.N. ESCOR Supp. (No. 1) at 11, U.N. Doc. E/3048 (1957).

[5] See "Republic of Kazakhstan: Parliamentary Elections," OSCE [online], http://www.osce.org/odihr/documents/reports/election_reports/kz/kazak2-2.pdf (retrieved December 15, 2003). "The Republic of Kazakhstan: Presidential Elections," OSCE [online],http://www.osce.org/odihr/documents/reports/election_reports/kz/kazak1-2.pdf (retrieved December 15, 2003).

[6] For more information, see "Freedom of the Media and Political Freedoms in the Prelude to the 1999 Elections" A Human Rights Watch Report, vol. 11, no. 11(D), October 1999.

[7] Kazhegeldin was prime minister from 1994-1997.

[8] Misdemeanor offenses are violations of the Kazakh Administrative Code. In Kazakhstan these are known as "administrative offenses;" for simplicity's purpose this report refers to them as "misdemeanors" or misdemeanor offenses." The offense was participation in an illegal public organization, in this case the Movement for Honest Elections. Two other presidential candidates were also excluded from the vote because of administrative offenses. See Human Rights Watch, World Report 2002 (New York:Human Rights Watch, 2002), p. 325; and "Freedom of the Media and Political Freedoms in the Prelude to the 1999 Elections" A Human Rights Watch Report.

[9] Ibid., p. 28.

[10] Ibid., passim.

[11]Eurasianet [online], http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/election/kazakhstan/bbk101219.html (retrieved October 14, 2003). In 2001, Masanov was convicted of "insulting the Kazakh people" on the basis of an audio recording of a private conversation, taped without his knowledge or consent. The recording was then spliced into a tape of a correspondent's "interview" questions. A criminal investigation against Masanov on the basis of this tape was quashed, but became the subject of a subsequent civil suit against Masanov, which he lost. In 2003, he faced criminal charges for not paying the fine levied in connection with the civil suit. Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Evgenii Zhovtis, head of the Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights and the Rule of Law (KIBHRL), March 10, 2004. See also International League for Human Rights (ILHR), "ILHR testimony to the EU-Kazakhstan, EU-Kyrgyzstan and EU-Uzbekistan Parliamentary Cooperation Committees of the European Parliament," June 12, 2002; Bhavna Dave, "Kazakhstan" Nations in Transit (Washington, D.C.:Freedom House, 2002), pp. 216-17; and electronic communication from Kazis Toguzbaev, director, Kazakhstan International Foundation for the Defense of Political Prisoners, October 14, 2003.

[12] The RNPK has an estimated membership of 14,000, located mainly in western and northern Kazakhstan, and in the cities of Atyrau and Almaty. Bhavna Dave, "Kazakhstan," Nations in Transit (Washington, D.C.: Freedom House, 2003), p. 313; Viacheslav Schekunskikh, "U nas dva poliusa: rezhim Nazarbaeva i oppozitsionnie sily" (We have two poles:the Nazarbaev regime and opposition forces), Kazakhstanskie novosti (Kazakhstan News), February 4, 2002 [online] http://kazhegeldin.addr.com/2002/About_04_02_02.htm (retrieved October 28, 2003).

[13] This website is www.eurasia.org.ru.

[14] The name "Kazakhgate" is widely used in Kazakhstan and is derived from the Watergate political scandal in the U.S. in the early 1970s.

[15] Abliazov had served as minister of energy from 1998-1999.

[16] The government further said that the U.S.$1.0-U.S.$1.4 billion was in the account and used to pay pensions, offset government deficits, and that the remainder was put in an oil fund. However, the Economist Intelligence Unit reported that it was difficult to verify. Economist Intelligence Unit, "Kazakhstan:Country Report," July 2002, pp. 14-15.

[17] United States District Court, Southern District of New York, Indictment, United States vs. James H. Giffen, April 2, 2003. The companies included companies cited in the indictment Mobil (now ExxonMobil), Amoco (now part of BP), Texaco (now ChevronTexaco), and Phillips Petroleum (now ConocoPhillips).

[18] United States Attorney Southern District of New York press release, "American Businessman Charged with $78 Million in Unlawful Payments to Kazakh Officials in 6 Oil Transactions; Former Mobil Corp. Executive Indicted for Tax Evasion in Kickback Scheme," April 2, 2003; The New York Times, September 19, 2003.

[19] See, e.g., Joshua Chaffin, "Chevron Texaco Quizzed in Bribe Probe," The Financial Times, September 11, 2003; on October 21, 2003, Erlan Idrissov, the Kazakh ambassador in London, was interviewed on the BBC television programme "Hard Talk" and questioned on Kazakhstan's deteriorating human rights record, including government repression linked to Kazakhgate.

[20] Appeals of parliamentary deputies Serikbolsyn Abdildin, Vladislav Kosarov and Tolen Tokhtasynov to the U.S. Department of Justice and the General Procuracy of Kazakhstan, October 1, 2003. Tokhtasynov was the chairman of the DVK political council. He left the DVK to become Secretary of the Central Committee of the Communist Party on December 13, 2003. RFE/RL Newsline, December 16, 2004 Vol. 7, No. 235.

[21] See, for example, following sections on the DVK and on Mukhtar Abliazov.

[22]See below, section on Sergei Duvanov.

[23] Bapi was found guilty of having insulted the dignity and honor of the president, a criminal offense under Article 318 of the criminal code. His conviction however fell under the general amnesty and he did not serve his sentence. At the time of writing, Bapi was due to stand trial once again, on charges of tax evasion. Human Rights Watch interview with Emurat Bapi, Almaty, August 8, 2003; RNPK press releases, "V Kazakhstane ozh idaetsa dva gromkikh politicheskikh sudebnikh protsessa" (Two Big Political Trials Expected in Kazakhstan), August 29, 2003.

[24] www.eurasia.org.ru. Bhavna Dave, "Kazakhstan," 2002, p. 217; CPJ "Kazakhstan," Attacks on the Press in 1999.

[25] RFE/RL Kazakh Service, March 28, 2002.

[26]See section on Sergei Duvanov.

[27] Human Rights Watch interviews with journalists and editors representatives in Almaty, Atyrau, Uralsk, Shymkent, and Aktiube, July-August 2003.

[28] Bhavna Dave, "Kazakhstan," 2003, p. 326; Aldar Kusainov, "Kazakhstan's Critical Choice," Eurasianet [online], http://www.eurasianet.org/departments/rights/Articles/eav011303_pr.shtml, January 13, 2003 (retrieved January 1, 2003).

[29]Ibid.

[30] Rakhat Aliev is at present ambassador to Austria and Representative of Kazakhstan to the OSCE. He is also the husband of President Nazarbaev's daughter, Dariga Nazarbaeva. Aldar Kusainov, "Kazakhstan's Critical Choice."

[31]Executive power is concentrated in the office of the president of Kazakhstan. The president has the authority to propose constitutional amendments, dissolve parliament, appoint and dismiss the government, call referenda and appoint regional and municipal governors See Human Rights Watch, "Freedom of the Media and Political Freedoms in the Prelude to the 1999 Elections" A Human Rights Watch Report, vol. 11, no. 11(D), October 1999. Opposition movements have called for constitutional reform to broaden power-sharing.

[32] Serge Enderlin and Serge Michel, "Kazakhstan sous la steppe des barils" (Kazakhstan Under the Steppe of [Oil] Barrels), Le Figaro [online], http://www.lefigaro.fr/cgi/edition/genimprime?cle=20030713.FIG0222 (retrieved July 21, 2003); Bhavna Dave, "Kazakhstan," 2003, p. 317; Human Rights Watch interview with Andrei Sidirov, Almaty, August 8, 2003; Kazakstan 2001-2002 Politicheskii krizis (Kazakhstan 2001-2002:Political Crisis) (Novosibirsk:Kania, 2002), pp. 5-7.

[33] Zhakianov, Abliazov and parliamentary deputy T. Tokhtasinov made these calls, for example,"Address by Parliamentary Deputy T. Tokhtasinov to President Nazarbaev, October 10, 2001 [online], http://www.zhakiyanov.info/inner.php?menuid=7&show=1482 (retrieved October 23, 2003);Kazakstan 2001-2002 Politicheskii krizis, p. 7.

[34] Aldar Kusainov, "Kazakhstan's Critical Choice," January 13, 2003.

[35] Interfax-Kazakhstan, December 1, 2003.

[36] He was replaced by Daniel Akhmetov. Akhmetov was named as prime minister on June 13, 2003, immediately after the May-June 2003 land reform bill controversy. RFE/RL Newsline, June 13, 2003.

[37] These were Uraz Jandosov, a deputy prime minister, Jannat Ertlesaova, deputy minister of defense, Alikhan Baumenov, minister of labor, and Kairat Kelimbetov, a deputy finance minister. RFE/RL Newsline, November 19-26, 2001; Kazakstan 2001-2002 Politicheskii krizis, 2002, p. 8.

[38] Rozlana Taukina, Associated Press, "V poslednie dni ukhodiaschevo goda v Kazakhstane" (The last days of the outgoing year in Kazakhstan), December 31, 2001 [online] http://www.kaznews.ru/daigest.php (retrieved June 28, 2003). Taukina strongly suggests that the "voluntary" resignations were in fact coerced.

[39]RFE/RL Kazakh Report, December 28, 2001; "Obvinaiutsa v prevyshenii polnomochii" (They're accused of abuse of office), Kazakhstanskaia Pravda, January 5, 2002. The accusations involved an illegal exchange of state warehouses, a charge which would later constitute one of those laid against Zhakianov in July 2002.

[40] Khabar news agency, January 9, 2002. See below for details regarding the charges against, and trial of Zhakianov

[41] Some estimates put the number of participants at 5,000. According to Mukhamedkali Ospanov, one of Zhakianov's Pavlodar administration deputies and a DVK activist at the time, the numbers of demonstrators could have been substantially higher had the meeting been held in the center of the city. Since authorities denied permission to hold it directly downtown, the meeting location was changed at the last minute and the gathering was held in the city's circus building outside the city center. Human Rights Watch interview withMukhamedkali Ospanov, Moscow, May 23, 2003. The meeting was broadcast live on Tan TV, which, according to a former employee, further exacerbated the authorities' displeasure. Human Rights Watch interview with former Tan TV employee Marzhan Elshibaeva, Almaty, April 19, 2003. Also DVK videocassette, "19-20 January 2002: Meeting of the Democratic Opposition and DVK Meeting."

[42] "Report on the criminal prosecution on the grounds of his political activities, of the leader of the political movement 'Democratic Choice of Kazakhstan,' Galymzhan Zhakianov," delivered to Human Rights Watch in April 2003.

[43] Owned by Abliazov. "Tan" began rebroadcasting in September 2002. CPJ, (CPJ), "Kazakhstan," Attacks on the Press in 2002 [online], http://www.cpj.org/attacks02/europe02/kazak.html (retrieved July 5, 2003).

[44] Joshua Machleder and Ivan Sigal, "Independent Media and Alternative Narratives in Central Asia," paper presented at 4th Annual Central Eurasian Studies Society (CESS) Conference, Harvard University, October, 2003; "V Pavlodare prekratil veschane telekanal 'TV 6X6'" (T.V. "6X6" Shut Down in Pavlodar), Internews News Bulletin No. 137, May 2002 [online], http://www.internews.kz/rus/bulletin/137/news02.htm (retrieved October 28, 2003).For example, DVK supporters in Karaganda, Alkmolinsk, Pavlodar, Western Kazakhstan, and Kostanai provinces who attended the January 2002 meeting confirmed to Human Rights Watch in March and April 2003 that they and others who had attended had been summoned by these officials for "conversations."

[45]Kazakstan 2001-2002 Politicheskii krizis, p. 9. Also at this time, dissension within the DVK led to the founding of a new political party, "Ak Zhol" (Bright Way) by several members of the party executive. They included former prime minister Uraz Jandosov, former minister of labor Alikhan Baumenov, and former parliamentary deputy Bulat Abilov. "Ak Zhol" obtained registration in December 2002 and is considered "moderate" opposition.

[46] RFE/RL Kazakh Service, March 28, 2002.

[47]See "Republic of Kazakhstan: Parliamentary Elections ,"OSCE [online] http://www.osce.org/odihr/documents/reports/election_reports/kz/kazak2-2.pdf (retrieved December 15, 2003). "The Republic of Kazakhstan: Presidential Elections," OSCE [online], http://www.osce.org/odihr/documents/reports/election_reports/kz/kazak1-2.pdf (retrieved December 15, 2003).

[48] Human Rights Watch interviews with election candidates, election campaign workers, and independent election monitors, Kazakhstan, March-April 2003. Also, Association of Sociologists and Political Scientists (ASPI), "December 28, 2002 Interim Elections," Almaty, 2003; Republican Network of Independent Monitors, "Final Report on the December 28, 2002 By-Elections to the Parliament of Kazakhstan in the Kurmangazinsky (16), Maikuduksky (32), and Toraigirsky (46) Districts,"Almaty, January 10, 2003; and DVK et al., "Parliamentary Deputy Election Observation Report in Toraigirsky District No. 46, Pavlodar province," December 28, 2002.

[49] Kazakhstan News Bulletin "Dec. 28 by-election results certified," January 11, 2003 [online] http://www.homestead.com/prosites-kazakhembus/010803.html (retrieved March 22, 2004).

[50] Human Rights Watch interview with Natalia S., Pavlodar, April 17, 2003.

[51] Human Rights Watch interviews with Uandek Zimbaev and Nurzhan Zhakianov, Pavlodar, April 17, 2003.

[52]RFE/RL Central Asia Report, January 2, 2003, Vol. 3, No. 1. Association of Sociologists and Political Scientists (ASPI).

[53] Human Rights Watch interviews with Marina Sabitova and Lidia Mikhailovna, Karaganda, April 8 and 9, respectively; Association of Sociologists and Political Scientists, "Resultaty Exit Poll I Tsentrizbirkoma: sravnitel'niy analiz" (Exit Poll and Central Electoral Committee Results: A Comparative Analysis), Almaty, 2003; Dmitrii Mostovoi, "I Vso-taki Butiu sniali!" ("Butiu" Removed After All), Megapolis, no. 51(110), December 26, 2002.

[54] Human Rights Watch interview with Marina Sabitova, Karaganda, April 8, 2003.

[55] Ibid.; Human Rights Watch interview with Lidia Mikhailovna, independent election monitor, Karaganda, April 9, 2003.

[56]An akimis a local head of government, for example, a mayor of a city or village, or governor of a province.

[57] Association of Sociologists and Political Scientists (ASPI), "December 28, 2002 Interim Elections," Almaty, 2003.

[58] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Jumabai Dospanov, June 19, 2003 and electronic communication, June 23, 2003.

[59] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Jumabai Dospanov, June 19, 2003.

[60] OSCE Centre in Almaty press release, "OSCE Centre Assesses Local Elections in Kazakhstan," October 13, 2003; Maigul Kondikazakova, "Vzdrognut li "Otan" i "Asar," esli obediniatsa Ak Zhol i DVK?" (Will Otan and Asar Flinch if Ak Zhol and the DVK unite?), Navigator, October 22, 2003. The OSCE conducted only a limited observation of the elections and was unable to draw a conclusion as to whether the elections met OSCE standards.

[61] Under the Law on Elections, potential candidates must submit to the Central Electoral Commission documents certifying their mental health.

[62]Under the Law on Elections, government officials must certify candidate nominations.

[63] On their mental health, for example. DVK press releases, Akmolinsk province, July 10, 11, 14, and 16, 2003.

[64] Electronic communication from Vladimir Kozlov, DVK press secretary, Almaty, July 11, 2003.

[65] DVK Ust-Kamenogorsk branch electoral campaign press release, "Khuliganskoe napadenie na predstavitel'stvo DVK v Ust- Kamenogorske" (Hooligan Attack on DVK Office in Ust-Kamenogorsk), July 16, 2003.

[66] Ibid.; See also section on Maira Obenova.

[67]DVK electoral campaign press release, Ust- Kamenogorsk, July 16, 2003. See also section on Maira Obenova.

[68] "President signs law "On political parties,"" Kazakhstan News Bulletin Released weekly by the Embassy ofthe Republic of Kazakhstan,Vol. 3, No. 24, July 17, 2002. http://www.kazakhembus.com/071702.html [retrieved on March 8, 2004]

[69] MarkBraden, "OSCE/ODIHR Review of Kazakhstan's New Law on Political Parties," July 8, 2002; OSCE press release, "New Law on Political Parties Could Seriously Threaten Political Pluralism in Kazakhstan, " June 27, 2002. Evgenii Zhovtis sharply criticized the law at a December session of the Permanent Consultative Council. Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Evgenii Zhovtis, March 10, 2004.

[70] "Rukhaniiat beretsa za politiky" (Rukhaniiat takes up politics), Kazakhstanskaia Pravda, October 30, 2003.

[71] Interfax-Kazakhstan news agency, Almaty, in Russian, September 3, 2003.

[72]These sources included a U.S. diplomat and opposition party members interviewed by Human Rights Watch. The July 2003 certification of Kazakhstan by the U.S. Department of State required for Kazakhstan to receive funds under the Freedom Support Act states that the four parties were denied registration because they violated the ban on gender- or ethnic based parties.

[73] Human Rights Watch is not aware of the reasons why these parties did not apply for re-registration.

[74] See Article 337 of the Kazakh Criminal Code, and Article 274 of the Kazakh Administrative Code.

[75] In some cases materials were submitted up to four times over. As of July 4, 2003, the activities of the DVK Almaty branch were technically suspended.

[76] HRW telephone interview with Bakhit Tumenova, executive secretary, DVK, June 23, 2003. The DVK claims that linguistic experts argued the contrary, and that the objection was yet another pretext to deny registration

[77]Under art. 53 of the law on administrative violations, which covers the suspension of the activities of entrepreneurships or legal entities. Appeal of Decision No. 02-660 of Judge R. M. Zhakanova, S.M.E.S, Astana, July 4, 2003; DVK press release, "Provokatsii, kak nachala 'chestnikh vyborov' (A Provocation as "Honest Elections" Begin), July 22, 2003. DVK has been denied registration as a public association under the Law on Public Associations.

[78] S. Kairkhanov, "Demokratichekovo vybora bolshe net" (No More Democratic Choice) Ak Zhaiyk [Atyrau], No. 40(613), October 2, 2003; DVK press release, "Do demokratii 200 let?" (Two Hundred Years Until Democracy?), September 29, 2003.

[79] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Janat Kasymov, April 25, 2003.

[80] Ibid., June 13, 2003.

[81] Ibid.

[82] Formerly the Democratic Party of Women.

[83] Human Rights Watch interview with Raushan Sarsembaeva, Almaty, April 7, 2003. While Yel Dana is a women's party, the government apparently did not consider that it met the terms of a gender-based party, and therefore did not ban it from registration on those grounds. Sarsembaeva has since joined Asar.

[84] Ibid.

[85] Ibid.

[86] Formerly the Russian Party.

[87] Human Rights Watch interview with Gennadii Beliakov, chairman, Compatriot Party, Almaty, April 19, 2003.

[88] Ibid.

[89] Human Rights Watch interview with Serikbolsyn Abdildin, chairman, Communist Party of Kazakhstan, Astana, April 11, 2003; Pravda Kazakhstana, No. 11 (79), March 19-25, 2003.

[90] Human Rights Watch interview with Serikbolsyn Abdildin, Astana, April 11, 2003; "Kommunistam 'vykruchivaut' ruki" (Unscrewing the Communists' Hands), Pravda Kazakhstana, No. 11 (79), March 19-25, 2003; Kazakhstan parliament press release, "Skol'ko v Kazakhstane partii?" (How Many Parties are there in Kazakhstan?), April 2003 [online], http://www.navi.kz/Articles/4print.php?artid=3125 (retrieved June 14, 2003).

[91] Human Rights Watch interview with Serikbolsyn Abdildin, Astana, April 11, 2003.

[92]Pravda Kazakhstana, No. 11 (79), 19-25 March 2003.

[93] Chairman Abdildin pointed out, however, that the party simply did not possess the resources to carry out such a campaign. Human Rights Watch interview, Astana, April 11, 2003.

[94] Human Rights Watch interview with Zoia Kozhanova, chairwoman, Pavlodar province branch of the Communist Party, April 16, 2003. According to Kozhanova, there are approximately 1,700 Communist Party members in Pavlodar province.

[95] Ibid.

[96]Ibid.;Human Rights Watch interview with Claudia Svintsova, Karaganda, April 9, 2003.

[97] International League for Human Rights,"League Testifies in European Parliament,"June 12 , 2002[online], http://www.ilhr.org/ilhr/events/euro_parliament.htm(retrieved November 25, 2003).

[98]See, for instance, numerous analytical Articles posted on Eurasianet.org, and on the Institute for War and Peace Reporting (IWPR ) and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty websites. See also Human Rights in Kazakhstan and Central Asia, European Parliament Resolution on Kazakhstan Adopted on February 13, 2003, P5_TA-PROV(2003)0064; and U.S Congress Act, H.R. 1950, 108th Congress, 1st Session, July 16, 2003.

[99] European Parliament Resolution on Kazakhstan Adopted on February 13, 2003, P5_TA-PROV(2003)0064;, Congressional Resolution on human rights in Central Asia, S.J. Res. 3, January 14, 2003. National Fund for the Defense of Political Prisoners, the Kazakhstan International Bureau for Human Rights and the Rule of Law, and the International League for Human Rights, and Human Rights Watch have all criticized the trials.

[100] U.N. Secretary-General Kofi Annan is also among the 2003 nominees. International League for Human Rights (ILHR), September 18, 2003.

[101] In September, the KNB alleged publicly that Zhakianov was willing to step down from politics in exchange for presidential pardon. Interfax-Kazakhstan, September 3, 2003; Khabar news agency, September 15, 2003.

[102]Semipalatinsk province was integrated into Eastern Kazakhstan province in 1997. RFE/RL Kazakh News, April 24, 2003.

[103] Many consider that the publication of Zhakianov's September 2001 article, "Vremia delat' vybor"(Time to Make a Choice), which called for direct election of provincial governors, provoked a critical change in the centralgovernment's attitude towards him.

[104] Human Rights Watch interview with Karlygash Zhakianova, Zhakianov's wife, Almaty, March 29, 2003.

[105] "Memorandum between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan and the Embassies of France, the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland, and Germany," Almaty, April 3, 2002.

[106] Ibid.

[107] The government claimed that residence in the dormitory in Pavlodar also constituted house arrest, and that therefore that the terms of the memorandum had not been violated. It based its decision to transfer Zhakianov to Pavlodar on the fact that numerous witnesses crucial to the pre-trial investigation were resident in Pavlodar, and that visits from diplomatic personnel to Zhakianov in Almaty were interfering with the pre-trial investigation. Interfax-Kazakhstan news agency, April 11, 2002.

[108] Letter from Zhakianov's lawyer, Elena Rebenchuk, to the General Procurator, May 20, 2002; DVK press release "Zhakianov v reanimatsii" [Zhakianov in Intensive Care], May 20, 2002; Human Rights Watch interview with Karlygash Zhakianova, Almaty, March 29, 2003; Kazakstan 2001-2002 Politicheskii krizis, p. 11.

[109] Ibid. Zhakianov himself confirmed this information in his testimony to the Pavlodar City Court, see unofficial transcript "Trial over Zhakianov," available at http://www.zhakiyanov.info/inner.php?menuid=8.

[110] Human Rights Watch interview with Karlygash Zhakianova, Almaty, March 29, 2003.

[111] Articles 339 and 343. See section on Gennadii Bondarenko.

[112]Indictment on criminal case No. 023216050053, Pavlodar provincial procuracy, June 25, 2002.

[113] The government argued that Zhakianov had sold thePeschansk repair and engineering works factory and Tort-Kuduk gold mine below cost, and that his Pavlodar administration had violated communal property laws when it concluded a deal to exchange a state warehouse with one belonging to a private company, Romat Pharmaceuticals. The government claimed that this exchange was conducted at a loss to the state. Verdict of the PavlodarCity Court, Judge I.V. Tarasenko, August 2, 2002

[114] Human Rights Watch interviews with family members, lawyers, international observers including foreign lawyers, and other trial observers, Almaty, Pavlodar, Karaganda, and Moscow, March-June 2003.

[115] The unofficial transcript "Trial over Zhakianov," is available at http://www.zhakiyanov.info/inner.php?menuid=8.

[116]Violations of Articles 307 and 308, respectively, of the criminal code. Verdict of the PavlodarCity Court, Judge I.V. Tarasenko, August 2, 2002.

[117] The name of the police station and the place of detention are omitted to protect the witness.

[118] Not his real name. Also a Zhakianov employee.

[119] Human Rights Watch interview with Kairat K. (not his real name), Almaty, April 13, 2003.

[120] Ibid.

[121] Human Rights Watch interview with Karlygash Zhakianova, Almaty, April 13, 2003.

[122] Ibid.

[123] Khabar television, Almaty, in Russian, September 15, 2003, as cited in BBC Monitoring.

[124] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Elena Rebenchuk, July 4, 2003; Human Rights Watch interview with Mukhamedkali Ospanov, Moscow, May 23, 2003; Venera Abisheva, "Korotkie vstrechi posle dlinnovo puti" (Short meetings after a long road), June 25, 2003, Respublika.kz; "Press release for the press conference of Elena Rebenchuk, lawyer of Galymzhan Zhakianov," July 2, 2003, Almaty. This case also constituted one of the episodes in the July-August 2002 trial.

[125] As a result of an accident suffered as a young adult, Zhakianov suffers from a weakened lung condition, and is particularly susceptible to lung infections. Human Rights Watch interviews with Karlygash Zhakianova, March-July 2003, and with Zauresh Battalova, senator, Almaty, August 1, 2003.

[126] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Karlygash Zhakianova, May 15, 2003. "Press release for the press conference of Elena Rebenchuk, lawyer of Galymzhan Zhakianov," July 2, 2003, Almaty.

[127] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Elena Rebenchuk, July 4, 2003; "Interview with Karlygash Zhakianova," Respublika.kz, July 4, 2003. An official diagnosis of Zhakianov has not been made available. Those close to Zhakianov state that medical and prison personnel are under pressure not to confirm that Zhakianov has tuberculosis, and that Zhakianov himself has denied the reports about his condition in order to avoid transfer to tuberculosis prison barracks. Ibid.; Human Rights Watch interview with Zauresh Battalova, senator, Almaty, August 1, 2003.

[128] "Petition for forgiveness," letter from Karlygash Zhakianova to President Nazarbaev, July 2, 2003; Letter No. Zh-4682,2 from N. Belorukov, deputy chairman of the presidential commission on pardons, to Karlygash Zhakianova, July 10, 2003. Numerous local and Russian politicians and human rights groupssubsequently appealed to President Nazarbaev to release Zhakianov on grounds of ill health.

[129] See in particular, official commentary to Article 168 of the penal code. Letter from Evgeniy Zhovtis, director, The Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights and the Rule of Law(KIBHRL), to Zauresh Battalova, senator, and Serikbolsyn Abdildin, parliamentary deputy, KIBHRL Monitoring, July 25, 2003.

[130] Khabar news agency, September 15, 2003. The press conference, broadcast on national television, also occurred five days before the maslikhat elections of September 20, 2003.

[131] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Karlygash Zhakianova, September 16, 2003; DVK press release, "Ocherednaia falshivka rejima" (Routine regime falsification), September 15, 2003.

[132] "Press release for the press conference of Elena Rebenchuk, lawyer of Galymzhan Zhakianov," Almaty, July 2, 2003.

[133] Letter to the OSCE from Evgeniy Zhovtis, Nurbulat Masanov, Rozlana Taukina, Natalia Chumakova, Petr Svoik and Elena Rebenchuk, Almaty, June 9, 2003; Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Elena Rebenchuk, July 4, 2003.

Karlygash Zhakianova had submitted a request to president Nazarbaev in July for clemency for her husband on health and humanitarian grounds. "Interview with Karlygash Zhakianova," Respublika.kz, July 4, 2003.

[134]One example of consistent petty harassment includes efforts since April 2003 to obstruct Zhakianov's contact with the outside world. At that time, Karlygash Zhakianova reported that a pay phone installed in the prison at the behest of Zhakianov's family and lawyer was more often than not mysteriously out of order. Human Rights Watch interview with Karlygash Zhakianova, Almaty, March 29, 2003. Human Rights Watch interview with Karlygash Zhakianova , Almaty, July 31, 2003; Interfax-Kazakhstan news agency, September 16, 2003.

[135] Groups of prisoners who work informally for the prison administration are a regular feature of the Kazakh prisoner hierarchy.

[136] Sergei N. (not his real name) had previously served sentences in Petropavlosk and Ust-kamenogorsk, and he told Human Rights Watch that basic conditions in Kushmurun were worse than in Petropavlosk and Ust-kamenogorsk prisons.

[137] "Kazakhstanskii etap" (Kazakhstan's Phase), Novaia gazeta (The New Newspaper) [Moscow], September 1, 2003.

[138] Ibid.

[139] Interfax-Kazakhstan news agency, September 16, 2003; Statement of E.A. Zhovtis, director of the KIBHRL, , "On the situation of G. Zhakianov and S. Duvanov," August 12, 2003; Human Rights Watch interview with Karlygash Zhakianova, Almaty, July 31, 2003.

[140] Statement of the director of the Kazakhstan International Bureau for Human Rights and the Rule of Law, E.A. Zhovtis, "On the situation of G. Zhakianov and S. Duvanov," August 12, 2003.

[141] "Memorandum Between the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Kazakhstan and the Embassies of France, the United Kingdom and Northern Ireland, and Germany," Almaty, April 3, 2002; Human Rights Watch interviews with diplomatic representatives in Almaty, April 2003.

[142] These included "Tan" television and the newspaper Vremia Po.

[143]RFE/RL Newsline, March 28, 2003.

[144] Human Rights Watch interviews with local and international observers at the trial, Kazakhstan, March-April 2003.

[145]Ibid.

[146] Written statement of KIBHRL, June 28, 2002.

[147] Ibid.

[148] Articles 307 and 310 of the criminal code. Before assuming the post of minister of energy in 1998, Abliazov headed Kazakhstan's national power company, KEGOK. The court ruled that during his tenure as minister of energy, Abliazov misappropriated approximately U.S.$3.65 million from KEGOK. Another charge leveled was the failure to return his mobile telephone to KEGOK when Abliazov transferred posts from KEGOK to the Ministry of Energy, resulting in losses to KEGOK of about U.S.$4,000. This charge, however, was rejected by the court. Verdict of the Supreme Court, Astana, July 18, 2002.

[149] Dmitri Glumskov and Gennadii Sysoev, "Prezident Kazakhstana pomiloval opal'novo ministra" (Kazakh President Pardons Disgraced Minister), Kommersant [Moscow]. May 14, 2003.

[150] DVK press release "Tol'ko chto stalo izvestno o pokushenii na Mukhtara Abliazova" (Breaking news attack on Mukhtar Abliazov), December 18, 2002.

[151] Ibid.; written statement of Kazakhstan International Fund for the Defense of Political Prisoners, "V sviazi s pokusheniem na Mukhtara Abliazova" (Regarding the attack on Mukhtar Abliazov), December 20, 2002.

[152] Ibid. KIBHRL also confirmed that Abliazov had very likely been beaten by fellow inmates. "Zona ikh pogubit" (Prison Destroys Them), Gazeta vremia [Almaty], March 27, 2003; Appeal of "Za prava cheloveka," "Spasti zhizn' kazakhstanskovo politzakluchennovo Mukhtara Abliazova!" (Save the life of Kazakh political prisoner Mukhtar Abliazov!), December 20, 2002.

[153]Nurakhmet Kenzheev, "Abliazova izbivali i pytalis otpravit', a Zhakianova budut 'lomat' v drugoi kolonii?" (Abliazov Beaten and Attempts to Transfer Him, Will Zhakianov be 'Broken' in Another Prison?),Respublika.kz, March 21, 2003.

[154] Abliazov's remarks at a press conference in Almaty on May 14, 2003, Khabar News, May 14, 2003, http://www.khabar.kz.

[155] Human Rights Watch interviews in Almaty, July 31 and August 1, 2003, and via telephone, May 15, 2003.

[156] Almaty city procuracy, "Postanovlenie o priostanovlenii raskhodnikh operatsii i nalozhenii aresta na dvizhenia i raschetnie, valiutnye i depositniye scheta iuridicheskikh lits" (Order to suspend expense transactions and seize settlement, dollar and deposit accounts), No. 85, April 29, 2003.

[157] U.S. Department of State, Country Reports on Human Rights Practices for 2002: Kazakhstan (Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights and Labor: March 31, 2003) [online], http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/hrrpt/2002/18373.htm (retrieved September 22, 2003).

[158]It was notable that Duvanov's assailants did not attempt to rob him during the attack.

[159] Including meetings with the Open Society Institute, Radio Liberty, and the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. Michael Wines, "Politically Motivated Verdict Against Nazarbaev's Adversary," The New York Times, March 12, 2003.

[160] For more information see Human Rights Watch press releases"Journalist Violently Attacked in Kazakhstan," August 30, 2002, and "Kazakhstan: Open Investigation Needed of Charges against Kazakh Journalist, " October 29, 2002; also "Letter to President Nazarbaev Regarding the Due Process Rights of Sergei Duvanov," February 14, 2003.

[161] Ferdinand J.M. Feldbrugge and William B. Simons, "The Duvanov Case," Leiden, March 28, 2003.

[162] Ibid.

[163] The OSCE review was discussed at the June 5, 2003, meeting of the OSCE Permanent Council. Its conclusions were rejected by the Kazakh government.

[164] Human Rights Watch electronic communication from Evgeniy Zhovtis, director, KIBHRL, June 23, 2003.

[165] Statement by KIBHRL, "O situatsii, slozhivzheisia v sviazi s prebyvaniem S.V. Duvanova v kolonii LA 155/8" (On the situation surrounding S.V. Duvanov's detention in Colony LA 155/8), September 10, 2003.

[166]Specifically, from general regime prison LA-155/8 to prison-settlement LA155/13. Statement of Sergei Duvanov, Assandi Times [Astana], January 23, 2004, as cited in BBC Monitoring.

[167] Ibid.; Olivia Allison, "Out of Prison, Kazakhstani Journalist Shrugs off Government Pressure," Eurasianet,January 26, 2004; Galima Bukharbaeva, IWPR, "Zhurnalist trebuet opravdania" (Journalist Demands Justice), January 26, 2004.

[168] Galima Bukharbaeva, "Zhurnalist trebuet opravdania."

[169] Constitution Law of the Republic of Kazakhstan on Elections in the Republic of Kazakhstan, September 28, 1995, art. 4(1-3).

[170] Human Rights Watch interview with Igor Kolov, Almaty, April 1, 2003; telephone interview, June 27, 2003. Kolov said that the administrative violation concerned a failure to obtain permission to hold the meeting in that location.

[171] Human Rights Watch interview with Igor Kolov, Almaty, April 1, 2003.

[172]The akimat is the office of the local executive or akim, the governor of a province or district or mayor of a town.

[173] Ibid. Human Rights Watch interview with Igor Kolov, Almaty, April 1, 2003.

[174] Artiukova told Human Rights Watch that she had intended to run in the September 2003 local elections. Human Rights Watch interview with Ludmilla Artiukova, Pavlodar, April 17, 2003.

[175] Ibid. Ludmilla Artiukova, "Skazhi mne, kto tvoi akim, i ia skazhu, kto ty..." (Tell me who your akim is, and I'll tell you who you are) Pravda Kazakhstana [Astana], No. 9, April 4, 2003. Artiukova was head of the Ekibastuz akim's staff, and thus technically a member of Zhakianov's Pavlodar provincial administration. From 1995-1997, she occupied a high-ranking position in Zhakianov's Semipalatinsk provincial administration.

[176] Human Rights Watch interview with Ludmilla Artiukova, Pavlodar, April 17, 2003. Artiukova was eventually permanently dismissed.

[177] In 1999, when Artiukova was transferred, she was offered housing in a hotel owned by the Ekibastuz akimat until such time as an appropriate residence could be found. The hotel had been legally registered as an apartment. Artiukova paid 97,339 tenge [about U.S.$ 650] over a period of four years between 1999 and 2002, the apartment rental price established under government communal works' guidelines. The prosecution argued that she owed the government 408,567 tenge [about U.S. $ 2,700], the difference between the price of a hotel apartment and private apartment, according to communal works' guidelines. "Pavlodarskaia oblast. Bolshaia 'zachistka' prodolzhaetsa. Ugolovnoe delo No. 0232120100012" (Pavlodar oblast. The big "purge" continues. Criminal case No. No. 0232120100012) DVK Pavlodar province press release, April 2, 2003.

[178] "Pavlodarskaia oblast'. Bolshaia 'zachistka' prodolzhaetsa," (PavlodarProvince. The Great 'Clean-up Operation' Continues) DVK Pavlodar province press release, April 2, 2003; Ludmilla Artiukova, "Skazhi mne, kto tvoi akim, i ia skazhu, kto ty..."

[179] Verdict of the Ekisbastuz city court, Case no. 1148, March 25, 2003.

[180] Decision of the Ekibastuz city court, Judge G.G. Sagidenov, April 9, 2003; "Zakaz vypolnen!" (The order has been carried out!) DVK Pavlodar province press release, May 4, 2003.

[181] Letter from Zhakianov's lawyer, Elena Rebenchuk, to the General Procurator, May 20, 2002; DVK press release "Zhakianov v reanimatsii" [Zhakianov in Intensive Care], May 20, 2002. See section on Galymzhan Zhakianov.

[182] Article 339(2) of the criminal code.

[183] Article 343(2) of the criminal code. Verdict of the PavlodarCity Court, Judge Adlet Baktiarov, November 4, 2002. According to the verdict, Bondorenko and Zhuldasov from June 6-21 led a picket in front of the office of the investigator, police colonel I.K. Kusainov, carrying posters with Kusainov's photograph on them, and distributed printed materials bearing Kusainov's photograph.

[184] Verdict of the Pavlodar city court, Judge Adlet Baktiarov, November 4, 2002.

[185] Communist Party colleague Zoia Kozhanova was also served the court warning.

[186] Human Rights Watch interview with Zoi Kozhanova, Pavlodar, April 16, 2003.

[187] An appeals court upheld the ruling on December 12, 2002. Decision of the Pavlodar Province Court, Judge L.I. Paramonova, December 12, 2002. Under the law on mass media, publications which are issued either periodically or on a regular basis, have a permanent title, current issue number, andare issued in more than once every six months in the amount of no less than 100 copies, are required to have registration. Arts. 1(2,3), 12(2,3), Law on Mass Media. No. 451-1, July 23, 1999. The DVK press releases do not fit this definition.

[188] Human Rights Watch interview with Evgeniy Kravets, Pavlodar, April 16, 2003.

[189] International Foundation for Protection of Speech "Adil Soz," "Politseiskie Pavlodara zapreshchaiut rasprostraniat' gazety 'Asandi Taims', 'Soz' i 'Pravda Kazakhstana' "(Pavlodar police block the distribution of the"Asandi Times," "Soz" and "Pravda Kazakhstana" newspapers), May 2003 [online] http://www.adilsoz.kz/hot_news/2003/05/page1.htm (retrieved May 25, 2003).

[190] Igor Kolov, DVK press release, Rudny, July 3, 2003.

[191] Not her true name.

[192] Human Rights Watch interview with Natalia S., Pavlodar, April 17, 2003.

[193] Article 350 of the administrative code.

[194] This is not the first time the government has harassed Qosanov. In 2001, officials prevented him from traveling to the U.S. to testify before the U.S. Congress on human rights conditions in Central Asia. In 1998, Qosanov was reportedly beaten by unidentified masked persons in the run-up to the 1999 parliamentary and presidential elections. See Human Rights Watch, World Report 2002 (New York:Human Rights Watch, 2002), p. 325; and "Freedom of the Media and Political Freedoms in the Prelude to the 1999 Elections" A Human Rights Watch Report, vol. 11, no. 11(D), October 1999, p. 28.

[195]RNPK press release, "Ugolovnoe delo Amirzhana Qosanova peredaetsa v sud" (Amirzhan Qosanov's criminal case goes to court), September 11, 2003.

[196] "O nalogakh I drugikh ob'iazatel'nikh platezhakh v biudget" (Law on Taxes and Other Obligatory Budget Payments), arts. 15(3), (34(3). Appeal from Reform to the Tax Committee of the Ministry of Finance, November 19, 2002. Human Rights Watch interview with Almira Kosainova, RNPK press-secretary, Almaty, April 2, 2003. Criminal Code of Kazakhstan, art. 222 [online], http://pavlodar.com/zakon/index.html?dok=00087&all=all (retrieved June 23, 2003) and art. 325 [online], http://pavlodar.com/zakon/index.html?dok=00087&all=all (retrieved June 23, 2003).

[197] Written appeal from Reform to the Tax Committee of the Ministry of Finance, November 19, 2002.

[198] Human Rights Watch interviews with Amirzhan Qosanov, New York, January 31, 2003, and Almaty, March 31 and August 7, 2003.

Tax police regularly bring cases against government critics, including RNPK members. A criminal case for tax evasion has also been recently instigated against Emurat Bapi, who is editor-in-chief of Soldat and an RNPK member. Bapi was givena one-year prison sentence in 2001for having insulted the honor and dignity of the President Nazarbaevfollowing publication in 2000 of Articles on Kazakhgate in Soldat. Human Rights Watch interview with Emurat Bapi, Almaty, August 8, 2003; RNPK press releases, "V Kazakhstane ozhidaetsa dva gromkikh politicheskikh sudebnikh protsessa" (Two Big Political Trials Expected in Kazakhstan), August 29, 2003;"Pochemu forsiruiutsa ugolovnie dela v otnoshenii Amirzhan Kosanova i Emurata Bapi?" (Why are criminal cases against Amirzhan Qosanov and Emurat Bapi being speeded up?), July 1, 2003. On November 17, 2003, the Medeusk district court handed Bapi a one-year suspended sentence on charges of illegal entrepreneurship, tax evasion and document forgery (Articles 192, 218 and 222 of the criminal code, respectively). Bapi is to pay 9 million tenge in outstanding taxes [approximately U.S.$62,000], a fine of 21,000 tenge [approximately U.S.$143.00], and is forbidden from engaging in publishing activities for the next five years. KIBHRL Monitoring, November 18, 2003.

[199] Qosanov's defense refuted the charges, arguing that de facto Reform was a non-commercial organization, and that the prosecution had failed to specify both particular legislation violated by Reform and precise sums of tax unpaid based on tax legislation that had undergone regular amendments between 1998 and 2002. Comments of lawyerI. Meerzon, and final speech of Amirzhan Qosanov, Medeusk district court, Almaty, October 10, 2003 [online], http://www.zhakiyanov.info/inner.php?offset=10 (retrieved October 14, 2003).

[200] The catering services were engaged for celebrations held by Reform on March 8, International Women's Day, and during Navruz, an annual holiday in Central Asia which celebrates the beginning of spring. Human Rights Watch interview with Amira Kosainova, RNPK press-secretary, Almaty, April 2, 2003.

[201] Human Rights Watch interview with Almira Kusainova, RNPK press-secretary, Almaty, April 2, 2003. Investigators on the case violated procedural norms during the pre-trial investigation when they issued verbal threats to, and requested "informal discussions" from, Ms. Kusainova. She told Human Rights Watch that during one interrogation session in the first quarter of 2003 an investigator had warned her that judicial authorities had not yet decided whether she herself or Qosanov would be imprisoned.

[202] RNPK press release, "V Kazakhstane poiavilsia esche odin politicheskii osuzhdeniy" (Another political conviction in Kazakhstan), October 13, 2003.

[203] Human Rights Watch interview with Jumabai Dospanov, Atyrau, August 4, 2003. The most recent civil case concerns a violation of the Law on Mass Media, a case Dospanov argues constitutes retaliation for Altyn Gasyr's -- his newspaper coverage of Kazakhgate.

[204]See below, "December 2002 parliamentary elections."

[205] Ibid.; Human Rights Watch interview with Tomas Brydle, director, NDI, Almaty, March 28, 2003.

[206] On June 14, 2003, approximately 550 persons from Kazakhstan's fourteen administrative regions gathered in Almaty and elected a committee to work towards a referendum on the country's controversial land privatization bill, adopted on June 20, 2003. Opposition to the bill, which critics say will enrich the wealthy, has led to major reshuffles in government, including the June 11 resignation of prime minister Imangali Tasmagambetov. Daria Mustafina, "Referendum protses proshel" (The Referendum the Process is Underway), June 19, 2003 [online], http://www.zhakiyanov.info/inner.php?menuid=6&show=1892 (retrieved June 20, 2003); Human Rights Watch telephone interviews with Adilkhan Ramazanov, June 16 and 20, 2003.

[207] Electronic communication from Jumabai Dospanov, June 20, 2003. Human Rights Watch interview with Jumabai Dospanov, Atyrau, August 4, 2003.

[208] Ramazanov stated, however, that the charges had led to only six convictions. Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Adilkhan Ramazanov, June 16, 2003.

[209] Human Rights Watch telephone interviews with Adilkhan Ramazanov, June 16 and 20, 2003; Oksana Lisitskaia, "Mest' za zontiki," (Revenge for the Umbrellas) SolDat [Almaty], No. 24(82), December, 2002.

[210] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Adilkhan Ramazanov, June 16, 2003.

[211] Human Rights Watch telephone interviews with Adilkhan Ramazanov, June 16 and 20, 2003.

[212] The Constitutional Court was abolished in 1995.

[213] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Maira Obenova, June 16, 2003. Obenova did not state whether officials attempted to lay charges against her during these incidents.

[214] Ibid.

[215] Human Rights Watch telephone interviews with Maira Obenova, June 16 and 23, 2003, and electronic mail communication with Maira Obenova, June 23, 2003.

[216] Art. 342 of the Civil Code.

[217] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Maira Obenova, June 23, 2003.

[218] Human Rights Watch telephone interview, and electronic communication with Mukhtar Umbetov, June 30 and July 5, 2003, respectively. Umbetov is also vice-president of the Confederation of Independent Trade Unions of Kazakhstan.

[219] Ibid.

[220] Ibid. The RNPK has boycotted re-registration in protest against the restrictions of the new law on political parties. Under the law, official closure of a political party requires either that a party hold a congress to vote itself closed, and then apply for closure to the Ministry of Justice; or that the government itself issue a court order to close the party on the grounds of lack of registration. Neither of these stepshas been taken with regard to the RNPK.

[221] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Mukhtar Umbetov, June 30, 2003.

[222] Human Rights Watch interview with Marat Januzakov, Almaty, April 1, 2003, and electronic communication, July 7, 2003.

[223] Electronic communication from Marat Januzakov, July 7, 2003.

[224]Ibid.

[225] Human Rights Watch interview with Marat Januzakov, Almaty, April 1, 2003.

[226]Ibid. Delovoye Obozreniye Respublika (Republican Business Survey) was the predecessor to Assandi Times, known for its critical coverage of the government.

[227] Human Rights Watch interview with Marat Zhanuzakov, Almaty, April 1, 2003.

[228] Human Rights Watch interview with Marina Sabitova, Karaganda, April 8, 2003.

[229] Ibid.

[230] Ibid.

[231] Ibid.

[232] Human Rights Watch interview with Claudia Svintsova, Karaganda, April 9, 2003.

[233] Human Rights Watch interview with Oksana Pernovskaia, head of the DVK's Western Kazakhstan branch, Almaty, April 1, 2003.

[234] Human Rights Watch telephone interview with Iskanderbek Torbekov, June 21, 2003, and interview with Almira Kosainova, RNPK press-secretary, Almaty, April 2, 2003

[235] Ibid.

[236] RNPK press release, "Dialog demokratov v Alma-Ate" (Democrats' Dialog in Almaty), May 30, 2003.

[237] Human Rights Watch interview with Lidia Mikhailovna, Karaganda, April 9, 2003.

[238] Human Rights Watch interview with Albert N., Astana, April 11, 2003.

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