February 11, 2014

“I Wanted to Lie Down and Die”

Trafficking and Torture of Eritreans in Sudan and Egypt

To the Government of Egypt
To the Government of Sudan
To the Government of Ethiopia
To the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
To the League of Arab States and the African Union
To Donor Governments Providing Support to UNHCR, Egypt, Ethiopia,  and Sudan
I. Background
Fleeing Eritrea
Eritrean Refugees in the Horn of Africa and Egypt
Refugee Camps in Eastern Sudan
Refugee Camps in Ethiopia
Eritreans in Cairo
II. Trafficking of Eritreans in Sudan
The Shift from Smuggling to Trafficking in Eastern Sudan
Kidnapping, Abuse and Torture of Trafficking Victims in Eastern Sudan
Transfer to Egyptian Traffickers
Sudanese Security Force Collusion with Traffickers in Eastern Sudan
III. Trafficking of Eritreans in Egypt
Trafficker Abuses in Sinai
Violence, Extortion, Forced Labor, and Death
Number of Victims, Length of Time Held, Trafficker Identities and Locations
Local Community Attempts to End Trafficking
Egyptian Security Force Collusion with Traffickers
Collusion at the Nile
Collusion at Checkpoints
Collusion at the Suez Canal
Other Collusion Cases in Sinai
IV. Sudan’s and Egypt’s Failure to Investigate  Trafficking, Collusion, and Torture
Legal Obligations
Obligations to Investigate Trafficking, Related Abuses and Security Force Collusion  with Traffickers
Obligations to Investigate Torture
Sudan’s Limited Steps to Investigate
Egypt’s Failure to Investigate Despite Detailed Evidence
Egyptian Officials’ Denials of Trafficking and Related Abuses in Sinai
Partial Acknowledgment by Anti-Trafficking Committee of Trafficker Abuses
Possible mpact of Egyptian ilitary perations in Sinai in ate 2013
The Broader Sinai Context
V. Fate of Escaped or Released Trafficking Victims
Egyptian Security Force Border Shootings
Arbitrary Detention in Sinai’s Police Stations
The Decision to Detain
Detainees’ Lack of Access to UNHCR and Asylum Procedures
Detention Conditions and Lack of Access to Medical Care and Other Assistance
Transfer of Eritreans to Ethiopia
Local Community Assistance to Trafficking Victims and Transfer to Cairo
Lack of UNHCR Access to Detainees outside Sinai