January 18, 2012

“Waiting Here for Death”

Forced Displacement and “Villagization” in Ethiopia’s Gambella Region

Glossary of Abbreviations
Summary
Recommendations
To the Government of Ethiopia
To Ethiopia’s Foreign Donors in the Development Assistance Group (DAG)
To Agricultural Investors
Methodology
Background to Villagization in Ethiopia
The History of Villagization
Past Villagization and Rights Violations in Gambella
Background to the Current Villagization Program
Livelihoods in Gambella
Agricultural Land Investment in Gambella
Gambella’s Villagization Process
The Government Villagization Plan
Affected Communities
Human Rights Abuses in the Villagization Process
Forced Displacement
Forced Displacement from Urban Centers
Suppressing Dissent
Arbitrary Arrest and Detention
Beatings and Assaults
Rape and Sexual Violence
Violations of Economic, Social, and Cultural Rights
Infrastructure Commitments
Right to Food and Food Security
Right to Education
Forced Labor and the Right to Adequate Housing
Displacement, Agricultural Investment, and Indigenous Land Rights
Role of International Donors
Donor Efforts to Encourage Best Practice
Donors’ Involvement
Legal Framework
Land Tenure under Ethiopian Law..
International Human Rights Law, Forced Evictions, and Indigenous Peoples’ Rights
International Human Rights Law..
Forced Evictions
Indigenous Peoples’ Rights
Acknowledgements
Appendix I: Gambella Peoples’ National Regional State, “Villagization Program Action Plan (2003 EFY)”
Appendix II: DAG, “Good Practice Guidelines and Principles Regarding Resettlement”
Appendix III: Human Rights Watch Letter to the Government of Ethiopia on Gambella
Appendix IV: Reply from the Government of Ethiopia to Human Rights Watch Regarding Gambella
Appendix V: Human Rights Watch Letter to the DAG on Gambella
Appendix VI: Reply from the DAG to Human Rights Watch Regarding Gambella
Appendix VII: Human Rights Watch Letter to Karuturi Global Ltd. on Gambella
Appendix VIII: Reply from Karuturi Global Ltd. to Human Rights Watch Regarding Gambella