December 13, 2009

“You Will Be Punished”

Attacks on Civilians in Eastern Congo

I. Background
Conflict in Eastern Congo
Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda (FDLR)
National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP)
Clashes and the Failure of Mixage
More Peace Talks Fail Again
Applicable Legal Standards
II. Lead-Up to Military Operations
Crisis Point
Rwanda-Congo Deal
Joint Military Operations
Outcome of Military Operations since January 2009
III. Human Rights Abuses by FDLR and Allies
FDLR Structure
Rally for Unity and Democracy (RUD)-Urunana: an FDLR Ally
A Strategy of Deliberately Targeting Civilians
Explicit Threats to “Punish” Civilians
Massacres and Killings
Killings by RUD-Urunana in Southern Lubero
Rape and Sexual Slavery
Burning and Pillage
IV. FDLR Responsibility
Ignace Murwanashyaka>
Gen. Sylvester Mudacumura
Other Commanders
V. Abuses by the Congolese Army and Other Forces
Massacres and Killing of Civilians during Operation Umoja Wetu
Other Abuses during Operation Umoja Wetu
Massacres and Killings during Kimia II
Other Abuses during Kimia II
Responsibility for the Crimes
VI. Congolese Army Attacks on Rwandan Hutu Refugees
Shalio Area Massacre
Individual Responsibility for Killings in Shalio area
Other Killings and “Disappearances” of Rwandan Hutu Refugees
VII. Congolese Government and Army’s Failure to Protect Civilians
Inadequate Civilian Protection Planning
Integration Problems Increase Risks
Entrenched Impunity
Some Good Intentions
Army Response
VIII. MONUC and Civilian Protection
Origin of Operation Kimia II
Concerns about Operation Kimia II
New Initiatives for Civilian Protection
Challenges for Human Rights Monitoring
International Response
Annex I: Civilians Killed by FDLR Combatants
Annex II: Civilians Killed by the Congolese Army and Their Coalition Partner
Annex III: Civilians Raped by FDLR Combatants
Annex IV: Civilians Raped by the Congolese Army and Their Coalition Partner
Annex V: Deliberate Burning of Civilian Homes and Other Structures