June 2, 2005

The Curse of Gold

I. Summary
II. Recommendations
III. Methodology
IV. Background: Enriching the Elites
The Significance of Gold
Ugandan Forces Plunder the Gold of Haut Uélé District, 1998-2002
Local Armed Groups Fight for the Gold of Ituri, 2002-2004
V. Human Rights Abuses in the Mongbwalu Gold Mining Area
Massacres and other Abuses by the UPC and their Allies
Massacre at Mongbwalu, November 2002
Massacre at Kilo, December 2002
Arbitrary arrest, torture and summary executions
Mining the Gold: Instances of Forced Labour
Increased Commerce
Justice for UPC crimes
Massacres and other Abuses by the FNI, FAPC and the Ugandan Army
Massacre at Kilo, March 2003
Accountability for the March 2003 Kilo Massacre
The 48 Hour War, June 2003 and subsequent massacres
A 'Witch Hunt' for Hema Women and other Opponents
Murder of two MONUC Observers
Threat Against Human Rights Defenders and Others Reporting Abuses
Arbitrary Arrests, Torture and Forced Labor
Control of the Gold Mines
VI. AngloGold Ashanti – Starting Gold Exploration Activities
Competition for the Mining Rights to the Mongbwalu Mines
AngloGold Ashanti Seeks to Start Exploration Activities in Mongbwalu, 2003
AngloGold Ashanti develops a relationship with the FNI armed group
AngloGold Ashanti benefits from its relationship with the FNI armed group
Benefits for the FNI Armed Group
AngloGold Ashanti View of Contacts with the FNI
Failure to Respect Human Rights, International Norms and Business Standards
VII. Human Rights Abuses in the Durba Gold Mines and Trade Routes
Summary Executions by Commander Jérôme, 2002-2004
Executing and Torturing Supposed Political Opponents
Arbitrary Detention and Torture
Tolerating Abuses by Business Allies
Djalasiga: Continued Conflict over Gold Mines
VIII. Trade in Tainted Gold
The New DRC Mining Code
Organization of the Gold Trade through Butembo and Ariwara100
Dr Kisoni in Butembo100
Omar Oria in Ariwara104
Congolese Gold Exported to Uganda105
Gold Export Figures from Uganda107
Gold Traders in Kampala108
Encouragement of the Gold Trade by the Ugandan Government110
Buyers of Tainted Gold111
Switzerland: Unaccounted Gold?111
Metalor Technologies SA.. 113
IX. International Initiatives to Address Resource Exploitation in the DRC.. 118
U.N. Panel of Experts Reports on Illegal Resource Exploitation in the DRC.. 118
Investigations on Breaches of the OECD Guidelines121
Response of Regional Governments122
The Ugandan Porter Commission122
Rwandan Investigations123
DRC Government Response124
MONUC.. 125
International Financial Institutions126
International Criminal Court127
X. Conclusion129
XI. Acknowledgements130
XII. Appendices131

This report was written in English and translated into French.  If there are any inconsistencies between the French and English versions of this document, the English version will govern.  This report was correct as at April 26, 2005.

Abbreviations

AGK                            Ashanti Goldfields Kilo

APC                             Congolese People's Army

CIAT                            Committee for the Support of the Transition

DRC                            Democratic Republic of Congo

FAPC                           People's Armed Forces of Congo

FARDC                        Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of Congo

FNI                              Nationalist and Integrationist Front

FRPI                             Patriotic Force of Resistance in Ituri

ICC                              International Criminal Court

IIA                               Ituri Interim Administration

ILO                              International Labor Organisation

KIMIN                         Kilo Moto Mining International

MLC                            Congolese Liberation Movement

MONUC                      U.N. Organization Mission in the DRC

NCP                             National Contact Point

OECD                         Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development

OKIMO                       Office of the Gold Mines of Kilo-Moto

PUSIC                          Party for Unity and Safeguarding of the Integrity of Congo

RCD                            Congolese Rally for Democracy

RCD-ML                      Congolese Rally for Democracy – Liberation Movement

RCD-National               Congolese Rally for Democracy – National

SOKIMO                     Society of the Gold Mines of Kilo-Moto

U.N.                             United Nations

UPC                             Union of Congolese Patriots