September 25, 2006

Custody and Control

Conditions of Confinement in New York's Juvenile Prisons for Girls

Glossary
Summary
Recommendations
To the Governor of New York and the Commissioner of the Office of Children and Family Services (OCFS)
To the New York State Legislature
To the New York Courts
To Family Court Prosecutors, Mental Health Services Officers, and Probation Officers
To the New York State Office of Mental Health
To the New York State Department of Education
To the New York State Civil Service Employees Association and Public Employees Federation, the unions representing OCFS facilities staff
To United States Officials
To the United Nations Special Rapporteur on Violence Against Women
Methods
I. The Rights of Incarcerated Girls under International Law..
II. Girls in the New York Juvenile Justice System...
Girls' Delinquency: Systemic Failures and Pathways to Incarceration
The Social Welfare System...
Schools
Juvenile Justice Processing and the Incarceration of Girls
Developments in the Policing of Girls
The Incarceration of Girls
The Disproportionate Impact on Girls of Color
III. Conditions of Confinement: Abusive Treatment
Excessive Use of Physical "Restraints"
Staff Shortages as a Contributing Factor to Excessive Force
Excessive Security Measures
Secure Conditions within Tryon's "Non-Secure" Facility
Strip Searches
Handcuffing and Shackling of Girls
Sexual Abuse
Collective Punishment
Verbal and Psychological Abuse
Violations of Privacy
Discrimination
Discrimination and Harassment Against Lesbian and Gender Nonconforming Girls
Racial Discrimination
IV. Conditions of Confinement: Inadequate Educational Opportunities
Schooling
Vocational Training
V. Conditions of Confinement: Mental Health
General Health Concerns103
VI. Conditions of Confinement: Isolation and Related Issues105
Isolated Confinement105
Idleness108
Limitations on Contact with the Outside World108
Lack of Attorney Access upon Incarceration109
Family Visits110
Telephone Calls and Mail112
Library and Media Access116
VII. Reentry and the Effects of Incarceration117
VIII. Lack of Accountability, Oversight, and Transparency in OCFS121
Grievance Procedures and Staff Accountability121
Absence of Internal Oversight124
Inadequacy of External Governmental Monitoring127
Barriers to Monitoring by Civil Society128
Appendix: Facilities Investigated131
Tryon131
Lansing132
Acknowledgements134