December 12, 2013

“Leave Everything to God”

Accountability for Inter-Communal Violence in Plateau and Kaduna States, Nigeria

Summary
Recommendations
To the Government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria
To the National Assembly
To the Nigeria Police Force
To the Federal Ministry of Justice
To the Nigerian Military
To the Plateau State Ministry of Justice
To the Kaduna State Ministry of Justice
To the United Nations, United States, United Kingdom, and Nigeria's Other Foreign Partners
To the International Criminal Court
Methodology
I. Background: Religion, Ethnicity, and Power in Nigeria
History of Conflict in Plateau State
History of Conflict in Kaduna State
II. Inter-Communal Violence in Plateau State, 1994-2008
1994 Jos Riots
2001 Jos Crisis
2004 Yelwa Massacres
2008 Jos Violence
III. Renewed Communal Violence in Plateau State, 2010-2013
The January 2010 Jos Violence
The March 2010 Dogo Nahawa Massacre
Other Attacks on Berom
Renewed Violence in Jos and Southern Plateau State
IV. Impunity for the 2010-2013 Violence in Plateau State
The Federal Attorney General Steps In
Federal and State Prosecutions for Renewed Violence
V. Inter-Communal Violence in Kaduna State, 1987-2002
1987 Kafanchan Violence
1992 Zangon Kataf Violence
2000 "Sharia Riots"
2002 "Miss-World" Riots
VI. Deadly Post-Election Violence in Kaduna State in 2011
Sectarian Violence in Northern Kaduna State
Sectarian Violence in Central Kaduna State
Sectarian Violence in Southern Kaduna State
Renewed Violence in Kaduna State, 2011-2013
VII. Impunity for the 2011 Post-Election Violence in Kaduna
VIII. The Legal Framework
International Law
Federal and State Law
IX. The Anatomy of Impunity
Failures at Time of Arrest
Failure to Investigate: The Weak Link
Criminal Prosecutions: The Rare Exceptions
Commissions of Inquiry or Political Solutions Instead of Criminal Prosecutions
Acknowledgments