April 12, 2005

Devastating Blows

Religious Repression of Uighurs in Xinjiang

Map 1
Map 2
I. Summary
A note on methodology
II. Background
The political identity of Xinjiang
Uighur Islam...
A history of restiveness
The turning pointunrest in 1990, stricter controls from Beijing
Post 9/11: labeling Uighurs terrorists
Literature becomes sabotage
The international responseacquiescence and quid pro quos
III. National Law and Policy on Religion
IV. A Repressive Framework: Regulation of Religion in Xinjiang
Policies Hidden from the Public
Regulation in 1994-2001: "Keeping a handle on" the imams and party cadres
The 2001 draft amendments to the 1994 Regulations: narrowing the scope of "normal" religious activities
A Manual for Urumqi Municipality Ethnic Religious Work
V. Implementation: Restrictions on Freedom of Religion in Practice
Registration of religious organizations: a no-win situation
The "reeducation" of imams in 2001 and 2002
Control and conformity: supervision of mosques in 2001
The persecution of clerics and the demolition of mosques
A Case of "Extremism"
VI. Controlling Religion in the Education System...
Minors barred from "participating in religious activities" in Xinjiang
Purging the schools of religion
Enforcement through surveillance
Special campaigns
VII. Anti-Crime Campaigns and Religious Repression
Unrelenting crackdowns
Sweeps by law enforcement agencies
VIII. Religious "Offenders" in Detention
IX. Freedom of Religion and China's Responsibility under International Law..
X. Recommendations
To the government of the People's Republic of China:
To the international community:
To international organizations and mechanisms:
To international donors and aid groups working in Xinjiang, including the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank