September 21, 2009

Pushed Back, Pushed Around

Italy’s Forced Return of Boat Migrants and Asylum Seekers, Libya’s Mistreatment of Migrants and Asylum Seekers

Map of Southern Europe and North Africa
I.  Summary
I. Recommendations
To the Government of Libya
To the Government of Italy
To European Union Institutions and EU Member States
To the Management Board of Frontex
To the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)
III. Methodology and Scope
IV. Terminology
Migrants
Smugglers
V. Italian-Libyan “Friendship” and the Return of Boat Migrants to Libya
VI. Interdiction and the Principle of Nonrefoulement
VII. The Approach of the European Union Towards Libya
Outsourcing EU migration and asylum policy
The Role of Frontex
VIII. Maltese and Libyan Interdiction Prior to May 2009
IX. Failure to Rescue Boats in Distress at Sea
X. Libya: Lack of Access to Asylum
XI. UNHCR in Libya
XII. Linkages between Smugglers and Security and Law Enforcement Officials
Police and Smugglers: Bribes, Extortion, and Robbery
XIII. Abuses against Vulnerable Migrant Groups
Abuse of Women Migrants
Abuse of Unaccompanied Children
XIV. Abuses Entering Libya
Abuses in Libya’s Western Border Region
XV. Refoulement from Libya and Dumping People in the Desert near the Border
Dumping in the Desert
XVI. Migrant Detention Centers: Conditions and Abuses
Kufra
Tripoli Area Migrant Detention Facilities
Detention Centers along Libya’s Northwestern Coast (outside Tripoli)
Acknowledgements