February 28, 2013

Glossary

Ahmadiyah

An Islamic religious revivalist movement, founded in Qadian, Punjab, originating with the teachings of Mirza Ghulam Ahmad (1835–1908). In Arabic, Ahmadiyah means “followers of Ahmad” and adherents are sometimes called “Ahmadis.” It began its presence in the Indonesian Sumatra Island in 1925. It was legally registered in Jakarta in 1953.

Baha’i

The Baha’i religion was established by Bahaullah (1817-1892) in Baghdad in 1863. President Sukarno banned Baha’ism in 1962. President Abdurrahman Wahid revoked the ban in 2001.

Bakor Pakem

Coordinating Board for Monitoring Mystical Beliefs in Society (Badan Koordinasi Pengawas Aliran Kepercayaan Masyarakat) under the Attorney General’s Office with branches in every province and regency under public prosecutors’ offices.

Darul Islam

Armed movement established in Garut, West Java, in 1949 to set up an Islamic state in Indonesia. In Arabic, Dar al-Islam means house or abode of Islam and is commonly used to refer to an Islamic state. In Indonesian, it is usually spelled “Darul Islam.”

Dewan Dakwah

Indonesian Council of Islamic Propagation (Dewan Dakwah Islamiyah Indonesia, DDII), an Islamist organization dedicated to dakwah (an Arabic-derived term referring to efforts to propagate the Islamic faith) and to face “challenges” posed by other religions including Christianity, Buddhism, Hinduism, and spiritual movements. It was established in 1967 in Jakarta.

FKUB

Religious Harmony Forum (Forum Kerukunan Umat Beragama)

Forkami

Indonesian Muslim Communication Forum (Forum Komunikasi Muslim Indonesia)

FPI

Islamic Defenders Front (Front Pembela Islam)

Garis

Islamic Reform Movement (Gerakan Reformis Islam) based in West Java.

GKI Yasmin

Indonesian Christian Church in the Jasmine Garden housing complex (Gereja Kristen Indonesia Taman Yasmin) in Bogor, a town just south of Jakarta.

Golkar

Golongan Karya (Functional Group), a political party founded in 1964 with the backing of senior army officers. It was the ruling party during President Suharto’s 33-year rule (1965-1998).

HKBP

Batak Protestant Christian Church (Huria Kristen Batak Protestan)

KPK

Corruption Eradication Commission (Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi)

KWI

Bishops’ Conference of Indonesia (Konferensi Waligereja Indonesia)

Masyumi

Consultative Council of Indonesian Muslims (Majelis Syuro Muslim in Indonesia), a coalition of Muslim groups set up during the Japanese occupation of Indonesia during World War II. It was banned by Sukarno in August 1960.

MPR

People’s Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat, MPR)

Muhammadiyah

A Sunni Muslim reformist organization established in 1912 in Yogyakarta, Central Java. One of the largest mass organizations in Indonesia. It has hundreds of hospitals and schools (pesantren) throughout Indonesia. In Arabic, Muhammadiyah means “followers of Muhammad.”

MUI

Indonesian Ulama Council (Majelis Ulama Indonesia)

Nahdlatul Ulama

A traditionalist Sunni Islam organization, established in 1926 in Jombang, East Java. It claims to have 45-50 million members, making it the largest Muslim social organization in the world. It has hundreds of Islamic boarding schools mostly in Java but also on other islands.

Pancasila

An Indonesian statement of political principle or philosophy (literally, “five principles”), articulated at independence in 1945, consisting of five “inseparable” principles: belief in the One and Only God (thereby legitimizing several world religions and not just Islam), a just and civilized humanity, the unity of Indonesia, democracy, and social justice. It became the state ideology under President Suharto and promotion of alternative ideologies was considered subversion. While now more rarely invoked by officials in such a blatantly ideological fashion, it continues to be a key reference point in discussions of religions and religious pluralism in Indonesia today.

PDIP

Indonesian Democratic Party of Struggle (Partai Demokrasi Indonesia Perjuangan)

PGI

Communion of Churches in Indonesia (Persekutuan Gereja-gereja di Indonesia)

PHDI

Indonesian Hindu Dharma Community (Parisada Hindu Dharma Indonesia)

PK, later PKS

Justice Party (Partai Keadilan), a political party in Indonesia modeled on the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. The party name later was changed to Prosperous Justice Party (Partai Keadilan Sejahtera).

PPP

United Development Party (Partai Pembangunan Indonesia)

Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosoewirjo

Founder of Darul Islam (1905-1962)

Shia Islam

The second largest denomination of Islam. In Arabic, Shia is the short form of the phrase Shī ʻ atu ʻ Alī, meaning “followers of Ali” a reference to Ali ibn AbiTalib (656–661), the son-in-law of the Prophet Mohammad. Shia members believe that Ali was the most legitimate successor to Mohammad.

Sunni Islam

The largest branch of Islam. In Arabic it is known as Ahl ūs-Sunnah wa āl-Jamā ʿ ah or “people of the tradition of Mohammad and the consensus of the Ummah.” Sunni members believe that Mohammad’s successors were successively four caliphs: Abu Bakr, Umar al-Khattab, Uthman ibn Affan, and Ali ibn AbiTalib. Most of Indonesian Muslims are Sunni followers.

YAPI

Islamic Pesantren Foundation (Yayasan Pesantren Islam), a Shia school in Bangil, East Java.