November 10, 2009

On Vulnerable Ground

Violence against Minority Communities in Nineveh Province’s Disputed Territories

Summary
Conflict in the North
The Battle for Nineveh
Nineveh’s Embattled Minorities
Methodology
Map: Disputed Territories Claimed by the Kurdistan Regional Government
I. Relevant Legal Standards
International Standards Protecting Minority Rights
National Standards Protecting Minority Rights
Iraq’s Constitution and the Disputed Territories
II. Background
Arabization
Anfal Campaign
Continuing Arabization post-1991, including Nationality “Correction”
Enduring Legacy of Displacement
Invasion and Civil War
Political Developments and the Situation in Nineveh
Kurdish Patronage and Control
III. Targeting Nineveh’s Minorities for Murder
A Recipe for Violence
Killings of Chaldo-Assyrians
Killings of Shabaks
Killings of Yazidis
IV. Intimidation by Kurdish authorities
Intimidation through Violence
Intimidation through Threats and Detentions
Intimidation ahead of the 2009 Provincial Elections
Recommendations
To the Kurdistan Regional Government
To the Government of Iraq
To the United States
Acknowledgments