April 14, 2009

A Dying Practice

Use of Cluster Munitions by Russia and Georgia in August 2008

Acronyms
Summary
Methodology
Recommendations
To the Government of Russia
To the Government of Georgia
To All Governments
Technical and Legal Background on Cluster Munitions
Cluster Munitions and their Humanitarian Effects
Existing International Humanitarian Law..
The Principle of Distinction
Feasible Precautions
International Humanitarian Law Applied to Cluster Munitions
Indiscriminate Use of Cluster Munitions
Disproportionate Use of Cluster Munitions
The Requirement to Take Precautions
Protocol V on Explosive Remnants of War
The Convention on Cluster Munitions
Key Provisions of the Convention on Cluster Munitions
The Importance of Joining the Convention on Cluster Munitions
The Belligerents and the Cluster Munitions Used
Use, Production, Transfer, and Stockpiling
Russia
Georgia
Cluster Munitions Used in Georgia and their Submunitions
AO-2.5 RTM Submunition
9N210 Submunition
Iskander Missile
M85 Submunition
Use of Cluster Munitions by Russia
Civilian Casualties at the Time of Attack
Gori City
Ruisi
Variani
Other Strikes
Socioeconomic Harm..
Russian Statements about Cluster Munitions
Legal Analysis
Use of Cluster Munitions by Georgia
Civilian Casualties at the Time of Attack
Shindisi
Tirdznisi
Civilian Casualties from Submunition Duds
Brotsleti
Pkhvenisi
Shindisi
Ditsi
Socioeconomic Harm..
Georgian Statements about Cluster Munitions
Initial Condemnation
Acknowledgment of Use
Confusion and Investigation
Legal Analysis
Clearance and Risk Education
Russian Military
Georgian Military
NGO Clearance
Community Clearance
Challenges
Coordination
Resource Shortages
Environmental Factors
Complications from Civilians
Risk Education
Victim Assistance
Conclusion
Acknowledgments