October 12, 2007

Criminal Politics

Violence, "Godfathers" and Corruption in Nigeria

Summary
Recommendations
To the government of the Federal Republic of Nigeria:
To the Nigerian Police Force:
To the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission:
To Nigeria's foreign partners:
Historical Background and Context
Historical Overview: Dictatorship and Rigged Elections
A Flawed Transition..
Political Violence
The Scale of Nigeria's Violence Epidemic..
The Human Rights Impact of Political Violence..
Politicians, Cults and Gangs
Justifying and Taking Violence for Granted..
Corruption, Godfatherism and the Funding of Political Violence
Corruption and Poverty in Nigeria..
Nigeria's Political Godfathers
Corruption and the Funding of Political Violence..
Entrenching Impunity: Federal Government Complicity, Human Rights Abuse and Corruption
Impunity and Governance in Nigeria..
Rewarding Abuse and Corruption..
Impunity and the 2007 Elections
The Nigerian Police and Impunity for Political Violence..
Selective Use of Anti-Corruption Institutions
Case Study A: Oyo State
The Godfather of Ibadan..
Adedibu's War Against Ladoja..
Oyo's 2007 Elections: A Victory for Corruption and Impunity
Federal Government Complicity
Aftermath..
Case Study B: Anambra State
Godfatherism in Anambra State..
Impeachment through Corruption and Intimidation..
Mobilizing Cult Groups for the 2007 Elections
The 2007 Elections and their Aftermath..
Case Study C: Rivers State
Sowing the seeds of Violence: The 2003 Elections in Rivers
The Legacy of the 2003 Polls in Rivers
Impunity for Violence..
Case Study D: Gombe State
Gombe's "Kalare" Gangs
Kalare Violence and the 2007 Elections in Gombe..
Police Inaction and Abuse..
Role of Nigeria's Federal Government103
Signs of Reform... 105
Role of Nigeria's International Partners107
The International Response to Nigeria's 2007 Elections108
International Engagement with the Yar'Adua Government110
Annex113
Acknowledgments121