December 22, 2003

Everyday Victims

Civilians in the Burundian War

I.  Summary
II. Recommendations
To the Government of Burundi:
To the FDD:
To the FNL:
To the African Union and the States Providing Troops to the African Mission in Burundi :
To Regional Leaders and the Mediator:
To the Government of Tanzania:
To Donor Governments:
To the United Nations Security Council:
To the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights and the Special Rapporteur for Burundi:
To the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees:
III.  Background to the War
IV.  The Peace Process
Many Actors, Little Leadership
The Joint Ceasefire Commission (JCC)
The African Mission in Burundi
Cantonment
Demobilization and Recruitment
Ethnicity and Changing Political Configurations
Government Repression of Dissent and of the Media
V.  Killing of Civilians
Killings at Kabezi
Official Reactions to the Killings at Kabezi
Apparent Reprisal Killings by Government Soldiers
Killings at Ruziba
Killings at Muyira
Official Reaction to the Killings at Ruziba and Muyira
Local Reactions
VI.  Other Killings and Abuses by Government Soldiers
Killings and Abductions by the FDD and FNL..
Civilian Casualties of Violence between FDD and FNL..
Killings and Abuses by the FDD and FNL in the Democratic Republic of Congo
VII.  Rape
Reactions to Accusations of Rape
VIII.  Child Soldiers
IX.  Displacement, Pillage, and Interference with Humanitarian Assistance
X.  Banditry
XI.  The Return of Refugees from Tanzania
XII. Justice
Provisional Immunity
The Law Against Genocide, War Crimes and Crimes Against Humanity
The Rome Treaty
Judicial Reform...
Military Justice
Breakthrough in an Important Case of Murder and Corruption
The Judges' Strike
XIII. The International Community
The United Nations
The Security Council
The U.N. High Commissioner for Human Rights
The Implementation Monitoring Commission
The African Union and the Regional Actors
Multilateral Donors
The European Union
The United States
XIV.  Conclusion
Acknowledgements