March 5, 2001

Beyond Reason:

The Death Penalty and Offenders with Mental Retardation

I. Summary and Recommendations
II.  Mental Retardation: An Overview..
What is mental retardation?
Subaverage intellectual functioning
Limitations in adaptive skills
Manifestation before the age of eighteen
Characteristics and Significance of Mental Retardation
Mental Retardation and Crime
Multiple Vulnerabilities
III. Capital Punishment and Mental Retardation: Legal Standards
International Human Rights Law..
United States Law..
IV.  The Miscarriage of Justice: Mental Retardation and Capital Trials
Waiver of Rights
"Knowing and intelligent"
False Confessions
Ineffective Assistance of Counsel
V.  Mental Retardation and Criminal Culpability
VI. Mental Retardation and the Individualized Determination of Punishment
VII. Mental Retardation and the Purposes of Capital Punishment
VIII.Defendants with Mental Retardation: Their Stories
Limmie Arthur
Jerome Bowden
Oliver Cruz
Tony Tyrone Dixon
Emile Pierre Duhamel
Jerome Holloway
Doil Lane
Ramon Martinez-Villareal
Morris Odell Mason
Luis Mata
Eddie Mitchell
Johnny Paul Penry
Anthony Porter
Earl Washington, Jr.
Terry Williams
Johnny Lee Wilson
IX. Acknowledgments