June 12, 2008

Collective Punishment

War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity in the Ogaden area of Ethiopia's Somali Region

Map 1: Ethiopia and Somali Regional State
Map 2: Conflict-Affected Zones of Somali Regional State
Note on Terminology
Part 1: Background
Political and Historical Context
The People and the Area
The Ogaden and Somali Nationalism in the Colonial Era
The Role of Somalia and Insurgency Movements in the 1960s and 1970s
The Somali-Ethiopian War over the Ogaden, 1977-78
Mengistu's "Secret Wars" in Southeast Ethiopia, 1978-84
The 1991 Overthrow of Mengistu and the Collapse of Somalia
Ethnic Federalism and the Somali Region under the EPRDF
Implementing Federal Policy: Structures of Control
Renewed Insurgency and Conflict in Somali Region
The Somalia and Eritrea Connections
Escalation in 2007
Part 2: Violations by the Ethiopian Government
Forced Displacement and Destruction of Villages
Cases of Forced Evacuation, Killings, and Village Burnings
Ela-Obo, February 2007
Wardheer and Shilabo weredas, May/June 2007
Labiga and Faafan Valley, June 2007
Lahelow, June 2007
Malqaqa, June 2007
Warandhaab, June 2007
Wardheer town, July 2007
Reprisal Killings
Dalal, February 2007
Gurdumi, April 2007
Gudhis, June 2007
Aleen, July 2007
Qoriley, July 2007
Galalshe and San-Xaskule, August 2007
Bukudhaba, August 2007
Rape and Other Sexual Violence
Rape of Women in Military Custody
Sexual Violence against Women Collecting Wood and Water
Arbitrary Detention, Abuse and Torture, and Execution of Detainees
Arbitrary Arrest and Detention
Torture and Beatings
Extrajudicial Executions at Military Bases
Former Detainees and Collective Punishment
Forced Recruitment of Pro-Government Militias
"Economic war": Confiscation of Livestock, the Trade Embargo, and Other Restrictions
Effects of the Trade Embargo
Restrictions on Movement, Herding, and Access to Water Sources
Restrictions on Humanitarian Assistance
The Failure of Judicial Protection and the Institutionalization of Collective Punishment
Enforcing the Law..
Authorizing Collective Punishment
Part 3: Abuses by the Ogaden National Liberation Front
Summary Executions and Attacks on Civilians by the ONLF
Attacks on Non-Ogaadeeni Clans and Property103
Part 4: Applicable Legal Standards104
Summary Executions and Other Mistreatment of Persons in Custody105
Rape and Other Sexual Violence106
Attacks on Civilians and Civilian Objects107
Forced Displacement107
Collective Punishment and Reprisals109
Individual Criminal Responsibility110
War Crimes110
Crimes against Humanity110
Part 5: Responses to Allegations of Human Rights Violations115
The Ethiopian Government's Response115
The International Response: A Wider Silence118
The Rationale for Donor Silence on Ethiopia119
Responses to Abuses in Somali Region120
To the federal government of Ethiopia125
To the regional government of Somali Regional State126
To the Ogaden National Liberation Front (ONLF)127
To foreign governments with influence, including the US, UK, China, and European Union127
To the United Nations Security Council129
To the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations129
To oil companies operating in Ethiopia129