After more than 40 years of dictatorship under Muammar Gaddafi, Libya held elections in July. However, a weak interim government failed to disband an array of armed groups that had emerged around the country. Nor was it able to end arbitrary detention and the torture of detainees, or address the forced displacement of groups perceived to be pro-Gaddafi. Libyans suffer from ongoing violence, including tribal clashes and deadly attacks on foreign diplomatic missions and international organizations. Kidnappings for financial and political reasons persist along with targeted killings of former Gaddafi security officers. Sufi religious sites have been destroyed. Migrants from sub-Saharan Africa face arrests, beatings, and forced labor.