Having completed a detailed examination of the technical capacities of the AMIS II-E, and in view of our extensive research on the situation in Darfur, Human Rights Watch makes the following recommendations for ways in which mission operations may be immediately improved to protect civilians and which are urgently needed whatever the missions future evolution might be. A second set of recommendations follows on the possible transfer of AMIS to a United Nations mandate.
To the African Union
o Expedite the completion of AMIS II-E in its entirety, including the full deployment of all 6,171 military personnel, 1,560 civilian police and equipment;
o Proactively and aggressively interpret AMISs mandate to protect civilians and humanitarian operations;
o Clarify that AMIS rules of engagement apply to the tasks of protecting civilians and humanitarian operations under imminent threat, and ensure that the rules allow for use of deadly force in the execution of these tasks;
o Delegate more control over the use of deadly force to sector commanders, to increase effectiveness;
o Ensure that the rules of engagement are supported and implemented by sector commanders and understood by soldiers through practical training. To this end, ensure that troop contributing countries provide soldier rules of engagement cards in the appropriate language, and that these cards are disseminated;
o Deploy in each sector fully equipped quick reaction forces to respond immediately to imminent threats to civilians and humanitarian operations, with rules of engagement that provide for the use of deadly force;
o Provide civilian police with some arrest powers (particularly in areas where no Government of Sudan presence exists), facilities, equipment, and procedures to enable them to detail and document alleged perpetrators before turning them over to the Sudanese authorities; and
o Pressure the government of Sudan to desist from any action hindering the deployment and full operationalization of the Canadian-loaned armored personnel carriers, and other equipment and supplies.
o Start planning for additional troops above the AMIS II-E levels of 6,171, including staff checks with troop contributing countries and discussions with donors about securing logistical and financial resources to support an increased force posture;
o Urgently generate and deploy additional civilian police above the AMIS II-E levels of 1,560 to provide improved visibility and protection around camps for internally displaced persons and vulnerable villages; and
o Assess the impact of the current operational command and control structure via force and mission headquarters, which competes with a national linear command and control structure (in which troop contributing countries nominate a national commander to oversee sector commanders, who in turn oversee national battalion groups).
To the Government of Sudan
o Expediting deployment and operationalization of the Canadian-loaned APCs, tactical air support and other equipment and services requested by AMIS;
o Expediting entry procedures for the A.U. and its partner personnel, and facilitating their full and unimpeded access throughout Darfur;
o Supporting A.U. requests for any additional AMIS troops and civilian police and for policing powers to AMIS police;
o Ensuring that all state security forces and government-backed forces cease committing violations of human rights and humanitarian law;
o Unconditionally ceasing to provide arms and logistical, financial, and other support to all militia groups, and disarm them; and
o Facilitating safe and unhindered access for humanitarian relief operations to all civilians in need of assistance throughout Darfur.
To partner Governments: the United States, the European Union and its member states, and the member states of the Arab League
o Support planning for additional troops above the AMIS II-E levels, including pledging logistical and financial resources to support an increased force posture, and providing attack helicopters to enhance AMISs capacity to protect civilians; and
o Support an immediate and substantial expansion of the AMIS civilian police component through logistical and financial support and expertise.
To the Government of Sudan
 A May 2005 United Nations report on assistance to AMIS states, AMIS has already identified and informally made available to donors a number of specific items in this regard [items required for expansion], including operations support (attack helicopters ). See: United Nations, Report of the Secretary-General on U.N. Assistance to the A.U. Mission in the Sudan (General/ S/2005/285), May 3, 2005 [online] http://www.sudantribune.com/article.php3?id_article=9677; European Union, Council Joint Action (2005/557/CFSP) Official Journal of the European Union, L188, July 18, 2005, pp. 46-51 [online] http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/lex/LexUriServ/site/en/oj/2005/l_188/l_18820050720en00460051.pdf; African Union, The AU Assessment Mission to Darfur, Sudan 10-22 March 2005: Report of the Joint Assessment Team, March 22, 2005.