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XIV. Conclusion

The Pretoria Protocol may end combat between the FDD and the Burundian government, but the FNL has affirmed its determination to continue fighting a government that it defines as Tutsi. Opposition to the protocol comes also from radical Tutsi: the militia Puissance Auto-défense Amasekanya denounced the agreement as “a diabolical plan for exterminating the Tutsi.”286 As combat continues between the Hutu FNL and the government at the expense of the “everyday victims, ”, all parties will have in mind the provisional immunity guaranteed by the Pretoria Protocol. All will know that even if not already protected by existing immunity, they can insist on obtaining it in any future negotiations. None will have to fear punishment for crimes committed except in the distant future—and probably not even then.

286 Agence France Presse, “Une organization radicale tutsi dit non à l’accord de Pretoria,” November 4, 2003.

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December 2003