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This report is the result of a field investigation in Kenya carried out over a six-and-a-half week period in April and May 1999, as well as subsequent research conducted primarily from the United States. The investigation in Kenya was carried out by Lisa Misol, researcher with the Arms Division of Human Rights Watch, assisted by Binaifer Nowrojee, senior researcher with the Africa Division of Human Rights Watch, Joost Hiltermann, executive director of the Arms Division of Human Rights Watch, and Ernst Jan Hogendoorn, then a researcher with the Arms Division. Misol conducted further research with support from Monique Ramgoolie and Jessica Olsen, research consultants with the Arms Division, Charli Wyatt, associate with the Arms Division, and Sharda Sekaran, former associate with the Arms Division. The report was written by Misol, with contributions by Hogendoorn and Nowrojee, and was edited by Nowrojee and Hiltermann. It was reviewed by Michael McClintock, deputy program director at Human Rights Watch, and James Ross, senior legal advisor at Human Rights Watch. Production assistance was provided by Charli Wyatt, Patrick Minges, publications director at Human Rights Watch, Veronica Matushaj, photo editor at Human Rights Watch, and Fitzroy Hepkins, mail manager at Human Rights Watch.

We would like to thank the many individuals and organizations who helped make this research possible. We are especially grateful to all the interviewees who told us their story, some of whom took great risks to speak to us, as well as to those who provided invaluable assistance with our field investigation in Kenya. Concerns for their personal safety do not permit us to name them here. In addition, a number of individuals and organizations in Kenya and elsewhere generously shared information and insights. We very much appreciate their contributions, which are cited in the report. We wish to offer special thanks to individuals in the following Kenya-based organizations, as well as the organizations themselves: Africa Peace Forum; Commission for Human Rights and Justice; Kenya Human Rights Commission; Muslims for Human Rights; and Security Research Information Centre. We are particularly indebted to colleagues from the Kenya Human Rights Commission and Muslims for Human Rights. They, like the others we have thanked here, bear no responsibility for the report.

The Arms Division gratefully acknowledges the generous support of the John D. And Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Compton Foundation, and members of the Arms Division Advisory Committee. Human Rights Watch takes sole responsibility for the content of this report.

The report is dedicated to the memory of human rights monitor Joseph Lumumba Obeto.

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