MBT Signature and Ratification
Of the forty-eight countries in Africa, forty have signed the Mine Ban Treaty (thirty-five during the Ottawa signing conference in early December 1997, and another five since then--Zambia, São Tomé and Principe, Chad, Sierra Leone, and Equatorial Guinea, which acceded).
The only non-signatories are: Central African Republic, Comoros, Congo (Brazzaville), Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Eritrea, Liberia, Nigeria and Somalia.
Of the forty signatories, seventeen had ratified as of 31 March 1999. In chronological order, they are: Mauritius, Djibouti, Mali, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Malawi, Mozambique, Equatorial Guinea, Burkina Faso, Namibia, Senegal, Benin, Guinea, Lesotho, Swaziland, Uganda, and Niger. Landmine Monitor country reports indicate that the ratification process is underway in about half of those nations that have not yet ratified.
The government of Angola, a treaty signatory, has laid new antipersonnel mines in 1998 and 1999. UNITA forces have also used APMs in the renewed fighting. It also seems certain that signatories Guinea-Bissau and Senegal used mines while fighting together against rebellious military forces in Guinea-Bissau in 1998. Senegal ratified the treaty in September 1998 during a ceasefire period. There have also been allegations of use by signatories Rwanda, Uganda and Zimbabwe in the conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo, but there is no concrete evidence and the accused governments have denied laying mines.
Mines have been used in 1998 and/or early 1999 by rebel forces in Angola, Djibouti, Guinea-Bissau, and Uganda, as well as by various factions in Somalia. There have also been frequent allegations of use in the DRC by government forces, rebels, and foreign armies, in Eritrea by government troops, and in Sudan by the government and rebels.
APM Production and Export
There are currently no antipersonnel landmine producers or exporters in Africa. (Egypt, which still produces mines, is included in the Middle East/North Africa section of this report). In the past, South Africa, Uganda, Zimbabwe and, possibly, Namibia produced APMs. South Africa and Zimbabwe were also exporters.
There is almost no hard data on the number of antipersonnel mines in the stockpiles of African nations, either signatories or non-signatories. Few countries have even begun destruction of stocks.
South Africa (243,423 mines) and Namibia (50 tons of mines and UXOs) indicate that they have destroyed their entire operational stocks of APMs. Mali, Guinea-Bissau, and possibly Uganda and Gabon have destroyed part of their APM stockpiles.
Those with APM stockpiles today include all of the non-signatories, except possibly Comoros, plus Angola, Chad, Djibouti, Ethiopia, Gabon, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. It is uncertain whether the following have mine stocks: Botswana, Burundi, Guinea, Tanzania, and Togo.
Landmine Problem and Mine Action
Africa is often called the most heavily mined continent. Severely affected countries include Angola, Mozambique, Somalia (and Somaliland), Sudan, Eritrea, and Ethiopia. Others include Zimbabwe, Rwanda, Zambia, Chad, Namibia, Burundi, Uganda, DR Congo, Mauritania, Sierra Leone, Liberia, Senegal, Guinea-Bissau, Congo-Brazzaville, Djibouti, Malawi, Niger, South Africa and Swaziland.
Mine clearance operations are underway in Angola, Mozambique, Namibia, Rwanda, and Zimbabwe with varying degrees of success. Some $116 million has been spent on mine action in Mozambique, likely more than any other country except possibly Afghanistan. More than $50 million has been spent in Angola, $12 million in Rwanda, and about $8 million in both Eritrea and Ethiopia.
MBT Signature and Ratification
There is near universal support for the Mine Ban Treaty in the Americas region. Thirty-three countries have signed the treaty; the United States and Cuba are the only non-signatories. As of 31 March 1999, nineteen countries of the region had ratified the ban treaty (in order of ratification): Canada, Belize, Trinidad and Tobago, Bolivia, Mexico, Peru, Jamaica, the Bahamas, Grenada, Honduras, Panama, Paraguay, Nicaragua, St. Kitts and Nevis, Barbados, El Salvador, Costa Rica, Dominica, and Guatemala.
Those who have signed but not ratified include: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guyana, Haiti, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Uruguay and Venezuela. The legislative process to ratify is currently underway in at least half of these nations.
The only country in the region where there is evidence that antipersonnel mines were being actively laid in 1998 and early 1999 is Colombia, where several rebel groups, notably the UC-ELN and FARC, have produced and used antipersonnel mines and improvised explosive devices for years.
APM Production and Export
As a result of the Mine Ban Treaty and domestic policies, seven countries in the region have stopped production of antipersonnel mines: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Nicaragua, and Peru. Colombias production, which ceased in 1996, had gone unrecorded by other governments and NGOs, prior to publication of the Landmine Monitor Report 1999.
The United States and Cuba remain the only APM producers in the hemisphere.
No country in the region is currently an exporter of antipersonnel mines. The U.S. turned its 1992 moratorium on exports into a permanent ban in 1997, and Cuba has formally stated that it does not export APMs. Treaty signatories Argentina, Brazil, Canada, and Chile exported mines in the past.
Canada and El Salvador have destroyed their entire operational stockpiles of antipersonnel mines. Guatemala states that it has no APM stockpile. Partial stockpile destruction has taken place in Nicaragua, the United States, and Uruguay.
The following nations are believed to have stockpiles of APMs: Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Guyana, Nicaragua, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela. Peru has reported to the OAS that it has no stockpile of antipersonnel mines, but there are reports to the contrary. It is not known if Panama, Paraguay, and Suriname have APM stockpiles.
The following nations are believed to have never possessed antipersonnel mines: Antigua and Barbuda, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Costa Rica, Dominica, Dominican Republic, Grenada, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines and Trinidad and Tobago.
Landmine Problem and Mine Action
Uncleared landmines pose a continuing problem in the Americas. The most seriously affected countries are Colombia and Nicaragua. Others with a mine problem include Honduras, Costa Rica, Guatemala, and Peru and Ecuador along their border, as well as the disputed Falkland/Malvinas Islands. The greatest number of mines, some 500,000 to one million, appear to be planted on Chiles borders with Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. However, these mines seem to cause few civilian casualties. Both the US and Cuba have planted mines around the US Guantanamo Naval Base; the US has pledged to remove all of its antipersonnel mines from the area by the end of 1999.
Humanitarian mine clearance programs are underway in Nicaragua, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Guatemala (all in cooperation with the OAS and Inter-American Defense Board). Joint agreement was reached in late 1998 by Peru and Ecuador to demine their border. In November 1998, Hurricane Mitch devastated Honduras, but only set back mine clearance efforts by a matter of months. All of the Central American countries should attain the goal of being mine free by the year 2000, with the exception of Nicaragua, where the target appears to have slipped to 2004, due to the hurricane and other factors.
A Memorandum of Understanding on a Joint Program for the Rehabilitation of Mine Victims in Central America was signed by Mexico, Canada and PAHO in January 1999. The initiative, financed with an initial grant of 3.5 million Canadian dollars will assess and begin to address the needs of war victims in El Salvador, Nicaragua and Honduras.
The United States has provided more money to global mine action programs than any other nation, approximately $164 million. Canada is another significant mine action donor (approximately $37 million).
MBT Signature and Ratification
Of the thirty-nine countries of the Asia-Pacific region (which stretches from Afghanistan in the west to the islands of the Pacific in the east), eighteen have signed the Mine Ban Treaty.
The signatories include: Australia, Bangladesh, Brunei, Cambodia, Cook Islands, Fiji, Indonesia, Japan, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, New Zealand, Niue, Philippines, Samoa, Solomon Islands, Thailand, and Vanuatu.
The non-signatories include: Afghanistan, Bhutan, Burma (Myanmar), China, India, Kiribati, North Korea, South Korea, Laos, Micronesia, Mongolia, Nauru, Nepal, Pakistan, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Tonga, Tuvalu, and Vietnam.
Of the eighteen signatories, as of 31 March 1999, only eight had ratified the treaty. In chronological order, they are: Niue, Fiji, Samoa, Japan, Thailand, Australia, Solomon Islands, and New Zealand.
No evidence was found of continued use of AP mines by treaty signatories. It is highly likely that opposition forces in Cambodia used mines in 1998, but the government denies that it has used AP mines since signing the treaty.
Of the non-signatories, use continues on a near daily basis in Burma by both the military government and a variety of armed ethnic groups. The Sri Lankan Army and the rebel Tamil Tigers (LTTE) continue to lay antipersonnel mines. The opposition forces in Afghanistan acknowledge ongoing use of AP mines, while there are unconfirmed reports of recent use by the Taliban.
APM Production and Export
Eight of the 16 remaining antipersonnel mine producers in the world are located in this region: Burma, China, India, North Korea, South Korea, Pakistan, Singapore, and Vietnam.
Those who have stopped APM production, either as a result of the treaty or domestic policies, include Japan, Philippines, Taiwan, and Thailand.
No country in the region is believed to be a current exporter of antipersonnel mines. Former exporters Pakistan and Singapore have formal export moratoria in place, while former exporters China and Vietnam have publicly stated that they are not currently exporting. No other Asia/Pacific country is known to have exported in the past, but it is worth noting that India and South Korea have announced formal export moratoria. Burma and North Korea have no export restrictions in place.
China, with an estimated 110 million antipersonnel mines, is believed to have the largest APM stockpile in the world. India, with an estimated 4-5 million APMs, and South Korea, with an estimated 2 million APMs, also have some of the worlds biggest holdings of mines.
Few countries in this region have started destroying antipersonnel mines. The Philippines has completed destruction of its mines (2,460 Claymore mines). New Zealand destroyed its small stockpile of mines in 1996, and retains only command-detonated Claymore mines. Cambodia has destroyed some 72,000 APMs. Japan is developing a plan for the destruction of the one million APMs in its stockpile.
Every country of the region is thought to have antipersonnel mine stockpiles except for New Zealand, the Philippines, Bhutan, Maldives, Papua New Guinea (Claymore only), the Pacific island states, and possibly Nepal.
Landmine Problem and Mine Action
Cambodia and Afghanistan are considered among the most mine-affected countries in the world. In Afghanistan, 146 square kilometers of land have been cleared of mines, but another 713 square kilometers await demining. Casualties in Afghanistan are estimated at 10-12 per day, about half of the 1993 estimate. In Cambodia, 148 square kilometers of land have been cleared; another 644 square kilometers is known to be mined and 1,400 square kilometers is suspected to be mined. There were 1,249 mine casualities in 1998, about one- third of estimates from several years ago.
The China-Vietnam border was heavily mined, but both sides have been conducting demining operations, with China claiming to have cleared more than 100 square kilometers of land in 1998 and early 1999. A new demining operation is getting underway in Vietnams Quang Tri Province, its most seriously affected area. Thailands border with Cambodia is also heavily mined, but the Thai have yet to initiate a major demining program. There is a serious problem with mines in Sri Lankas Jaffna peninsula, but a UNDP mine action program is being established there. Laos continues to be severely infested with unexploded ordnance from the Indochina Wars, as well as mines; clearance efforts are expanding with 159 hectares of land cleared in 1997 and 239 hectares in 1998 (through October). Burma has a problem with mines on its borders with Thailand and Bangladesh, but no systematic demining has taken place. Bangladesh, M alaysia, India, Pakistan, North Korea and South Korea have slight problems with mines, mostly in border areas.
Japan and Australia are among the leading mine action donors in the world. Japan has provided about $39 million (including $8.65 million in 1998 alone), and Australia about $23 million.
MBT Signature and Ratification
Thirty-nine of the fifty-three countries in Europe/Central Asia have signed the Mine Ban Treaty. That includes four since the the initial December 1997 treaty signing conference: Albania, Macedonia (which acceded), Ukraine and Lithuania.
The fourteen non-signatories are: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Estonia, Finland, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Russia, Tajikistan, Turkey, Uzbekistan, and FR Yugoslavia. It can be noted that this list contains eleven states from the former Soviet Union. All of the European Union has signed except Finland, all of NATO except Turkey, and all of Central/East Europe except the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.
While nations from the former Soviet Union have been reluctant to sign, Turkmenistan did so at the December 1997 treaty signing conference, and became the fourth country in the world to ratify in January 1998. In a very important development, Ukraine--with 10 million antipersonnel mines, the worlds fourth largest arsenal-- signed in February 1999, as did Lithuania, the first Baltic state.
Of the thirty-nine signatories from the region, twenty-four have ratified (in chronological order): Ireland, Turkmenistan, Holy See, San Marino, Switzerland, Hungary, Croatia, Denmark, Austria, Andorra, Norway, France, Germany, United Kingdom, Bulgaria, Belgium, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Slovenia, Monaco, Sweden, Spain, Portugal, and Slovakia.
The fifteen who have not ratified are: Albania, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Moldova, Netherlands, Poland, Romania, and Ukraine. Greece issued a formal statement upon signature indicating that ratification will take place as soon as conditions relating to the implementation of [the treatys] relevant provisions are fulfilled. Lithuania made a nearly identical statement at signature. Poland has indicated it will not implement the treaty until it becomes truly universal with the participation of all major powers, and Poland has found alternatives to APMs.
In the period from December 1997 to early 1999, it appears that new antipersonnel mines were laid in FR Yugoslavia and Kosovo by the Yugoslav army and the Kosovo Liberation Army, in Turkey by the government and the Kurdish (PKK) separatists, and in Abkhazia by Georgian partisans. There were also frequent allegations of use by Abkhazian partisans in Georgia, and by rebels in Tajikistan. None of these instances involve treaty signatories.
APM Production and Export
As a result of having signed the treaty or of domestic policies, twenty-three countries in this region have stopped production of antipersonnel mines: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bosnia, Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and United Kingdom. (Belarus, Cyprus and Ukraine have been identified by some as producers, but deny current or past production). The Landmine Monitor Report 1999 is the first to reveal details on Albanias past role in mine production.
Russia, Turkey, and Yugoslavia remain the only producers in the region. Russia announced a halt to production of blast antipersonnel mines in 1998. According to some Yugoslav sources, there has been no APM production there for several years.
No country in this region is believed to be engaged in antipersonnel mine exports. Landmine Monitor has identified eighteen regional countries as past exporters; sixteen have signed the treaty, Russia has a formal moratoriumon export of non-detectable and non-self-destructing mines, and Yugoslavia has publicly stated that it no longer exports APMs.
There are likely more than 100 million antipersonnel mines stockpiled in this region, with Russia holding an estimated 60-70 million, and Belarus stockpiling millions, possibly tens of millions, of APMs. Yugoslavia is also likely to have a very large stockpile, but the number is unknown. Finland has indicated it has less than one million APMs in stock.
As of early 1999, it is believed that the biggest stockpiles held by treaty signatories are those of Ukraine (10 million), Italy (7 million), Sweden (3 million), Albania (2 million), United Kingdom (850,000), France (650,000) and Spain (595,000). Destruction is underway or in the planning stage in each case, with the exception of Albania. Greece is also thought to have a significant stockpile of mines, with no plans for destruction yet in place.
But millions of mines have been destroyed in recent years, notably by Switzerland (3 million), Germany (1.7 million), France (750,000), Belgium (430,000), United Kingdom (430,000), Sweden (315,000) Netherlands (255,000), Spain (about 225,000), Denmark (about 200,000), Austria (116,000), and Ukraine (101,000). In addition, Russia has destroyed 500,000 APMs that do not comply with the revised mines protocol of the CCW.
Austria, Belgium, Germany, Luxembourg, Norway, and Switzerland have completed destruction of their operational stocks of antipersonnel mines. At least another sixteen countries have destroyed some APMs.
Landmine Problem and Mine Action
There are very serious mine problems in Bosnia and Croatia, as well as in Chechnya (Russia), Abkhazia (Georgia) and Nagorny-Karabakh (Azerbaijan). Other mine affected countries include Albania, Armenia, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Greece, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Slovenia, Tajikistan, Turkey, and Yugoslavia. Large scale humanitarian mine clearance programs are underway in Bosnia and Croatia.
In addition, a number of countries in the region are still suffering from mines and unexploded ordnance left over from World War II, notably Belarus, Belgium, Denmark, France, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Poland, Russia, and Ukraine. In some cases, thousands of mines and UXOs are still cleared each year.
Thirteen of the top seventeen donors for global mine action are from this region, including Norway, Sweden, UK, Germany, Denmark, France, Netherlands, Italy, Switzerland, Finland, Belgium,Austria and Ireland. Combined contributions total more than $380 million.
MIDDLE EAST/NORTH AFRICA
MBT Signature and Ratification
Five of the eighteen nations in the region have signed the Mine Ban Treaty: Yemen, Qatar, Algeria, and Tunisia at the December 1997 signing conference, and Jordan on 11 August 1999. Yemen (September 1998), Qatar (October 1998) and Jordan (November 1998) have also ratified. Tunisia passed ratification legislation in October 1998, but has not yet officially deposited it with the United Nations. Yemen has a domestic ban law, but it is unclear if this constitutes treaty implementation legislation.
Those who have not signed the treaty include: Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria and United Arab Emirates. Based on policy statements, actions, and U.N. votes, governments most opposed to the Mine Ban Treaty are Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Libya, Morocco and Syria.
While antipersonnel landmines have been used extensively throughout the region, there is confirmation of new use in the 1998 and early 1999 period only in Israeli-occupied south Lebanon, where APMs have been planted by both Israeli forces and non-state actors, notably Hezbollah.
APM Production and Export
Four countries in the region--Egypt, Iran, Iraq and Israel--have been identified as producers and exporters of antipersonnel mines. Israel has at least since December 1997 stated that it is no longer producing antipersonnel mines. Israel has a formal export moratorium in place, and Egypt and Iran have declared that they no longer export antipersonnel mines. Iraq is now the only nation in the world known to have exported APMs in the past which has not announced a halt.
Three nations in the region apparently have no APMs stockpiled: Kuwait, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates. It is unknown if Bahrain has a stockpile. Yemen appears to be the only country that has begun destruction of APMs, destroying 42,000 in 1998.
Not a single country in the region has divulged details about the total number of APMs in its stockpile. It is likely that Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Israel, and Syria have the biggest stocks of APMs.
Landmine Problem and Mine Action
All countries of the region report some landmine problem, except Bahrain, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates. An extensive mine clearance operation is carried out in Iraqi Kurdistan. Other affected nations where mine clearance occurs, sometimes systematically and sometimes sporadically, are Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Tunisia, and Yemen. In most of these nations, clearance is carried out by the armed forces.
18 September 1997
CONVENTION ON THE PROHIBITION OF THE USE, STOCKPILING, PRODUCTION AND TRANSFER OF ANTI-PERSONNEL MINES AND ON THEIR DESTRUCTION
The States Parties,
Determined to put an end to the suffering and casualties caused by anti-personnel mines, that kill or maim hundreds of people every week, mostly innocent and defenceless civilians and especially children, obstruct economic development and reconstruction, inhibit the repatriation of refugees and internally displaced persons, and have other severe consequences for years after emplacement,
Believing it necessary to do their utmost to contribute in an efficient and coordinated manner to face the challenge of removing anti-personnel mines placed throughout the world, and to assure their destruction,
Wishing to do their utmost in providing assistance for the care and rehabilitation, including the social and economic reintegration of mine victims,
Recognizing that a total ban of anti-personnel mines would also be an important confidence-building measure,
Welcoming the adoption of the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended on 3 May 1996, annexed to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects, and calling for the early ratification of this Protocol by all States which have not yet done so,
Welcoming also United Nations General Assembly Resolution 51/45 S of 10 December 1996 urging all States to pursue vigorously an effective, legally-binding international agreement to ban the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel landmines,
Welcoming furthermore the measures taken over the past years, both unilaterally and multilaterally, aiming at prohibiting, restricting or suspending the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines,
Stressing the role of public conscience in furthering the principles of humanity as evidenced by the call for a total ban of anti-personnel mines and recognizing the efforts to that end undertaken by the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Movement, the International Campaign to Ban Landmines and numerous other non-governmental organizations around the world,
Recalling the Ottawa Declaration of 5 October 1996 and the Brussels Declaration of 27 June 1997 urging the international community to negotiate an international and legally binding agreement prohibiting the use, stockpiling, production and transfer of anti-personnel mines,
Emphasizing the desirability of attracting the adherence of all States to this Convention, and determined to work strenuously towards the promotion of its universalization in all relevant fora including, inter alia, the UnitedNations, the Conference on Disarmament, regional organizations, and groupings, and review conferences of the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects,
Basing themselves on the principle of international humanitarian law that the right of the parties to an armed conflict to choose methods or means of warfare is not unlimited, on the principle that prohibits the employment in armed conflicts of weapons, projectiles and materials and methods of warfare of a nature to cause superfluous injury or unnecessary suffering and on the principle that a distinction must be made between civilians and combatants,
Have agreed as follows:
1. Each State Party undertakes never under any circumstances:
a) To use anti-personnel mines;
b) To develop, produce, otherwise acquire, stockpile, retain or transfer to anyone, directly or indirectly, anti-personnel mines;
c) To assist, encourage or induce, in any way, anyone to engage in any activity prohibited to a State Party under this Convention.
2. Each State Party undertakes to destroy or ensure the destruction of all anti-personnel mines in accordance with the provisions of this Convention.
1. "Anti-personnel mine" means a mine designed to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person and that will incapacitate, injure or kill one or more persons. Mines designed to be detonated by the presence, proximity or contact of a vehicle as opposed to a person, that are equipped with anti-handling devices, are not considered anti-personnel mines as a result of being so equipped.
2. "Mine" means a munition designed to be placed under, on or near the ground or other surface area and to be exploded by the presence, proximity or contact of a person or a vehicle.
3. "Anti-handling device" means a device intended to protect a mine and which is part of, linked to, attached to or placed under the mine and which activates when an attempt is made to tamper with or otherwise intentionally disturb the mine.
4. "Transfer" involves, in addition to the physical movement of anti-personnel mines into or from national territory, the transfer of title to and control over the mines, but does not involve the transfer of territory containing emplaced anti-personnel mines.
5. "Mined area" means an area which is dangerous due to the presence or suspected presence of mines.
1. Notwithstanding the general obligations under Article 1, the retention or transfer of a number of anti-personnel mines for the development of and training in mine detection, mine clearance, or mine destruction techniques is permitted. The amount of such mines shall not exceed the minimum number absolutely necessary for the above-mentioned purposes.
2. The transfer of anti-personnel mines for the purpose of destruction is permitted.
Destruction of stockpiled anti-personnel mines
Except as provided for in Article 3, each State Party undertakes to destroy or ensure the destruction of all stockpiled anti-personnel mines it owns or possesses, or that are under its jurisdiction or control, as soon as possible but not later than four years after the entry into force of this Convention for that State Party.
Destruction of anti-personnel mines in mined areas
1. Each State Party undertakes to destroy or ensure the destruction of all anti-personnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control, as soon as possible but not later than ten years after the entry into force of this Convention for that State Party.
2. Each State Party shall make every effort to identify all areas under its jurisdiction or control in which anti-personnel mines are known or suspected to be emplaced and shall ensure as soon as possible that all anti-personnel mines in mined areas under its jurisdiction or control are perimeter-marked, monitored and protected by fencing or other means, to ensure the effective exclusion of civilians, until all anti-personnel mines contained therein have been destroyed. The marking shall at least be to the standards set out in the Protocol on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Mines, Booby-Traps and Other Devices, as amended on 3 May 1996, annexed to the Convention on Prohibitions or Restrictions on the Use of Certain Conventional Weapons Which May Be Deemed to Be Excessively Injurious or to Have Indiscriminate Effects.
3. If a State Party believes that it will be unable to destroy or ensure the destruction of all anti-personnel mines referred to in paragraph 1 within that time period, it may submit a request to a Meeting of the States Parties or a Review Conference for an extension of the deadline for completing the destruction of such anti-personnel mines, for a period of up to ten years.
4. Each request shall contain:
a) The duration of the proposed extension;
b) A detailed explanation of the reasons for the proposed extension, including:
(i) The preparation and status of work conducted under national demining programs;
(ii) The financial and technical means available to the State Party for the destruction of all the anti-personnel mines; and
(iii) Circumstances which impede the ability of the State Party to destroy all the anti-personnel mines in mined areas;
c) The humanitarian, social, economic, and environmental implications of the extension; and
d) Any other information relevant to the request for the proposed extension.
5. The Meeting of the States Parties or the Review Conference shall, taking into consideration the factors contained in paragraph 4, assess the request and decide by a majority of votes of States Parties present and voting whether to grant the request for an extension period.
6. Such an extension may be renewed upon the submission of a new request in accordance with paragraphs 3, 4 and 5 of this Article. In requesting a further extension period a State Party shall submit relevant additional information on what has been undertaken in the previous extension period pursuant to this Article.
International cooperation and assistance
1. In fulfilling its obligations under this Convention each State Party has the right to seek and receive assistance, where feasible, from other States Parties to the extent possible.
2. Each State Party undertakes to facilitate and shall have the right to participate in the fullest possible exchange of equipment, material and scientific and technological information concerning the implementation of this Convention. The States Parties shall not impose undue restrictions on the provision of mine clearance equipment and related technological information for humanitarian purposes.
3. Each State Party in a position to do so shall provide assistance for the care and rehabilitation, and social and economic reintegration, of mine victims and for mine awareness programs. Such assistance may be provided, inter alia, through the United Nations system, international, regional or national organizations or institutions, the International Committee of the Red Cross, national Red Cross and Red Crescent societies and their International Federation, non-governmental organizations, or on a bilateral basis.
4. Each State Party in a position to do so shall provide assistance for mine clearance and related activities. Such assistance may be provided, inter alia, through the United Nations system, international or regional organizations or institutions, non-governmental organizations or institutions, or on a bilateral basis, or by contributing to the United Nations Voluntary Trust Fund for Assistance in Mine Clearance, or other regional funds that deal with demining.
5. Each State Party in a position to do so shall provide assistance for the destruction of stockpiled anti-personnel mines.
6. Each State Party undertakes to provide information to the database on mine clearance established within the United Nations system, especially information concerning various means and technologies of mine clearance, and lists of experts, expert agencies or national points of contact on mine clearance.
7. States Parties may request the United Nations, regional organizations, other States Parties or other competent intergovernmental or non-governmental fora to assist its authorities in the elaboration of a national demining program to determine, inter alia:
a) The extent and scope of the anti-personnel mine problem;
b) The financial, technological and human resources that are required for the implementation of the program;
c) The estimated number of years necessary to destroy all anti-personnel mines in mined areas under the jurisdiction or control of the concerned State Party;
d) Mine awareness activities to reduce the incidence of mine-related injuries or deaths;
e) Assistance to mine victims;
f) The relationship between the Government of the concerned State Party and the relevant governmental, inter-governmental or non-governmental entities that will work in the implementation of the program.
8. Each State Party giving and receiving assistance under the provisions of this Article shall cooperate with a view to ensuring the full and prompt implementation of agreed assistance programs.
1. Each State Party shall report to the Secretary-General of the United Nations as soon as practicable, and in any event not later than 180 days after the entry into force of this Convention for that State Party on:
a) The national implementation measures referred to in Article 9;
b) The total of all stockpiled anti-personnel mines owned or possessed by it, or under its jurisdiction or control, to include a breakdown of the type, quantity and, if possible, lot numbers of each type of anti-personnel mine stockpiled;
c) To the extent possible, the location of all mined areas that contain, or are suspected to contain, anti-personnel mines under its jurisdiction or control, to include as much detail as possible regarding the type and quantity of each type of anti-personnel mine in each mined area and when they were emplaced;
d) The types, quantities and, if possible, lot numbers of all anti-personnel mines retained or transferred for the development of and training in mine detection, mine clearance or mine destruction techniques, or transferred for the purpose of destruction, as well as the institutions authorized by a State Party to retain or transfer anti-personnel mines, in accordance with Article 3;
e) The status of programs for the conversion or de-commissioning of anti-personnel mine production facilities;
f) The status of programs for the destruction of anti-personnel mines in accordance with Articles 4 and 5, including details of the methods which will be used in destruction, the location of all destruction sites and the applicable safety and environmental standards to be observed;
g) The types and quantities of all anti-personnel mines destroyed after the entry into force of this Convention for that State Party, to include a breakdown of the quantity of each type of anti-personnel mine destroyed, in accordance with Articles 4 and 5, respectively, along with, if possible, the lot numbers of each type of anti-personnel mine in the case of destruction in accordance with Article 4;
h) The technical characteristics of each type of anti-personnel mine produced, to the extent known, and those currently owned or possessed by a State Party, giving, where reasonably possible, such categories of information as may facilitate identification and clearance of anti-personnel mines; at a minimum, this information shall include the dimensions, fusing, explosive content, metallic content, colour photographs and other information which may facilitate mine clearance; and
i) The measures taken to provide an immediate and effective warning to the population in relation to all areas identified under paragraph 2 of Article 5.
2. The information provided in accordance with this Article shall be updated by the States Parties annually, covering the last calendar year, and reported to the Secretary-General of the United Nations not later than 30 April of each year.
3. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit all such reports received to the States Parties.
Facilitation and clarification of compliance
1. The States Parties agree to consult and cooperate with each other regarding the implementation of the provisions of this Convention, and to work together in a spirit of cooperation to facilitate compliance by States Parties with their obligations under this Convention.
2. If one or more States Parties wish to clarify and seek to resolve questions relating to compliance with the provisions of this Convention by another State Party, it may submit, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, a Request for Clarification of that matter to that State Party. Such a request shall beaccompanied by all appropriate information. Each State Party shall refrain from unfounded Requests for Clarification, care being taken to avoid abuse. A State Party that receives a Request for Clarification shall provide, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, within 28 days to the requesting State Party all information which would assist in clarifying this matter.
3. If the requesting State Party does not receive a response through the Secretary-General of the United Nations within that time period, or deems the response to the Request for Clarification to be unsatisfactory, it may submit the matter through the Secretary-General of the United Nations to the next Meeting of the States Parties. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall transmit the submission, accompanied by all appropriate information pertaining to the Request for Clarification, to all States Parties. All such information shall be presented to the requested State Party which shall have the right to respond.
4. Pending the convening of any meeting of the States Parties, any of the States Parties concerned may request the Secretary-General of the United Nations to exercise his or her good offices to facilitate the clarification requested.
5. The requesting State Party may propose through the Secretary-General of the United Nations the convening of a Special Meeting of the States Parties to consider the matter. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall thereupon communicate this proposal and all information submitted by the States Parties concerned, to all States Parties with a request that they indicate whether they favour a Special Meeting of the States Parties, for the purpose of considering the matter. In the event that within 14 days from the date of such communication, at least one-third of the States Parties favours such a Special Meeting, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene this Special Meeting of the States Parties within a further 14 days. A quorum for this Meeting shall consist of a majority of States Parties.
6. The Meeting of the States Parties or the Special Meeting of the States Parties, as the case may be, shall first determine whether to consider the matter further, taking into account all information submitted by the States Parties concerned. The Meeting of the States Parties or the Special Meeting of the States Parties shall make every effort to reach a decision by consensus. If despite all efforts to that end no agreement has been reached, it shall take this decision by a majority of States Parties present and voting.
7. All States Parties shall cooperate fully with the Meeting of the States Parties or the Special Meeting of the States Parties in the fulfilment of its review of the matter, including any fact-finding missions that are authorized in accordance with paragraph 8.
8. If further clarification is required, the Meeting of the States Parties or the Special Meeting of the States Parties shall authorize a fact-finding mission and decide on its mandate by a majority of States Parties present and voting. At any time the requested State Party may invite a fact-finding mission to its territory. Such a mission shall take place without a decision by a Meeting of the States Parties or a Special Meeting of the States Parties to authorize such a mission. The mission, consisting of up to 9 experts, designated and approved in accordance with paragraphs 9 and 10, may collect additional information on the spot or in other places directly related to the alleged compliance issue under the jurisdiction or control of the requested State Party.
9. The Secretary-General of the United Nations shall prepare and update a list of the names, nationalities and other relevant data of qualified experts provided by States Parties and communicate it to all States Parties. Any expert included on this list shall be regarded as designated for all fact-finding missions unless a State Party declares its non-acceptance in writing. In the event of non-acceptance, the expert shall not participate in fact-finding missions on the territory or any other place under the jurisdiction or control of the objecting State Party, if the non-acceptance was declared prior to the appointment of the expert to such missions.
10. Upon receiving a request from the Meeting of the States Parties or a Special Meeting of the States Parties, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall, after consultations with the requested State Party, appoint the members of the mission, including its leader. Nationals of States Parties requesting the fact-finding mission or directly affected by it shall not be appointed to the mission. The members of the fact-finding mission shall enjoy privileges and immunities under Article VI of the Convention on the Privileges and Immunities of the United Nations, adopted on 13 February 1946.
11. Upon at least 72 hours notice, the members of the fact-finding mission shall arrive in the territory of the requested State Party at the earliest opportunity. The requested State Party shall take the necessary administrative measures to receive, transport and accommodate the mission, and shall be responsible for ensuring the security of the mission to the maximum extent possible while they are on territory under its control.
12. Without prejudice to the sovereignty of the requested State Party, the fact-finding mission may bring into the territory of the requested State Party the necessary equipment which shall be used exclusively for gathering information on the alleged compliance issue. Prior to its arrival, the mission will advise the requested State Party of the equipment that it intends to utilize in the course of its fact-finding mission.
13. The requested State Party shall make all efforts to ensure that the fact-finding mission is given the opportunity to speak with all relevant persons who may be able to provide information related to the alleged compliance issue.
14. The requested State Party shall grant access for the fact-finding mission to all areas and installations under its control where facts relevant to the compliance issue could be expected to be collected. This shall be subject to any arrangements that the requested State Party considers necessary for:
a) The protection of sensitive equipment, information and areas;
b) The protection of any constitutional obligations the requested State Party may have with regard to proprietary rights, searches and seizures, or other constitutional rights; or
c) The physical protection and safety of the members of the fact-finding mission.
In the event that the requested State Party makes such arrangements, it shall make every reasonable effort to demonstrate through alternative means its compliance with this Convention.
15. The fact-finding mission may remain in the territory of the State Party concerned for no more than 14 days, and at any particular site no more than 7 days, unless otherwise agreed.
16. All information provided in confidence and not related to the subject matter of the fact-finding mission shall be treated on a confidential basis.
17. The fact-finding mission shall report, through the Secretary-General of the United Nations, to the Meeting of the States Parties or the Special Meeting of the States Parties the results of its findings.
18. The Meeting of the States Parties or the Special Meeting of the States Parties shall consider all relevant information, including the report submitted by the fact-finding mission, and may request the requested State Party to take measures to address the compliance issue within a specified period of time. The requested State Party shall report on all measures taken in response to this request.
19. The Meeting of the States Parties or the Special Meeting of the States Parties may suggest to the States Parties concerned ways and means to further clarify or resolve the matter under consideration, including the initiation of appropriate procedures in conformity with international law. In circumstances where the issue at hand is determined to be due to circumstances beyond the control of the requested State Party, the Meeting of the States Parties or the Special Meeting of the States Parties may recommend appropriate measures, including the use of cooperative measures referred to in Article 6.
20. The Meeting of the States Parties or the Special Meeting of the States Parties shall make every effort to reach its decisions referred to in paragraphs 18 and 19 by consensus, otherwise by a two-thirds majority of States Parties present and voting.
National implementation measures
Each State Party shall take all appropriate legal, administrative and other measures, including the imposition of penal sanctions, to prevent and suppress any activity prohibited to a State Party under this Convention undertaken by persons or on territory under its jurisdiction or control.
Settlement of disputes
1. The States Parties shall consult and cooperate with each other to settle any dispute that may arise with regard to the application or the interpretation of this Convention. Each State Party may bring any such dispute before the Meeting of the States Parties.
2. The Meeting of the States Parties may contribute to the settlement of the dispute by whatever means it deems appropriate, including offering its good offices, calling upon the States parties to a dispute to start the settlement procedure of their choice and recommending a time-limit for any agreed procedure.
3. This Article is without prejudice to the provisions of this Convention on facilitation and clarification of compliance.
Meetings of the States Parties
1. The States Parties shall meet regularly in order to consider any matter with regard to the application or implementation of this Convention, including:
a) The operation and status of this Convention;
b) Matters arising from the reports submitted under the provisions of this Convention;
c) International cooperation and assistance in accordance with Article 6;
d) The development of technologies to clear anti-personnel mines;
e) Submissions of States Parties under Article 8; and
f) Decisions relating to submissions of States Parties as provided for in Article 5.
2. The First Meeting of the States Parties shall be convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations within one year after the entry into force of this Convention. The subsequent meetings shall be convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations annually until the first Review Conference.
3. Under the conditions set out in Article 8, the Secretary-General of the United Nations shall convene a Special Meeting of the States Parties.
4. States not parties to this Convention, as well as the United Nations, other relevant international organizations or institutions, regional organizations, the International Committee of the Red Cross and relevant non-governmental organizations may be invited to attend these meetings as observers in accordance with the agreed Rules of Procedure.
1. A Review Conference shall be convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations five years after the entry into force of this Convention. Further Review Conferences shall be convened by the Secretary-General of the United Nations if so requested by one or more States Parties, provided that the interval between Review Conferences shall in no case be less than five years. All States Parties to this Convention shall be invited to each Review Conference.
2. The purpose of the Review Conference shall be:
a) To review the operation and status of this Convention;
b) To consider the need for and the interval between further Meetings of the States Parties referred to in paragraph 2 of Article 11;
c) To take decisions on submissions of States Parties as provided for in Article 5; and
d) To adopt, if necessary, in its final report conclusions related to the implementation of this Convention.
3. States not parties to this Convention, as well as the United Nations, other relevant international organizations or institutions, regional organizations, the International Committee of the Red Cross and relevantnon-governmental organizations may be invited to attend each Review Conference as observers in accordance with the agreed Rules of Procedure.
1. At any time after the entry into force of this Convention any State Party may propose amendments to this Convention. Any proposal for an amendment shall be communicated to the Depositary, who shall circulate it to all States Parties and shall seek their views on whether an Amendment Conference should be convened to consider the proposal. If a majority of the States Parties notify the Depositary no later than 30 days after its circulation that they support further consideration of the proposal, the Depositary shall convene an Amendment Conference to which all States Parties shall be invited.
2. States not parties to this Convention, as well as the United Nations, other relevant international organizations or institutions, regional organizations, the International Committee of the Red Cross and relevant non-governmental organizations may be invited to attend each Amendment Conference as observers in accordance with the agreed Rules of Procedure.
3. The Amendment Conference shall be held immediately following a Meeting of the States Parties or a Review Conference unless a majority of the States Parties request that it be held earlier.
4. Any amendment to this Convention shall be adopted by a majority of two-thirds of the States Parties present and voting at the Amendment Conference. The Depositary shall communicate any amendment so adopted to the States Parties.
5. An amendment to this Convention shall enter into force for all States Parties to this Convention which have accepted it, upon the deposit with the Depositary of instruments of acceptance by a majority of States Parties. Thereafter it shall enter into force for any remaining State Party on the date of deposit of its instrument of acceptance.
1. The costs of the Meetings of the States Parties, the Special Meetings of the States Parties, the Review Conferences and the Amendment Conferences shall be borne by the States Parties and States not parties to this Convention participating therein, in accordance with the United Nations scale of assessment adjusted appropriately.
2. The costs incurred by the Secretary-General of the United Nations under Articles 7 and 8 and the costs of any fact-finding mission shall be borne by the States Parties in accordance with the United Nations scale of assessment adjusted appropriately.
This Convention, done at Oslo, Norway, on 18 September 1997, shall be open for signature at Ottawa, Canada, by all States from 3 December 1997 until 4 December 1997, and at the United Nations Headquarters in New York from 5 December 1997 until its entry into force.
Ratification, acceptance, approval or accession
1. This Convention is subject to ratification, acceptance or approval of the Signatories.
2. It shall be open for accession by any State which has not signed the Convention.
3. The instruments of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession shall be deposited with the Depositary.
Entry into force
1. This Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the sixth month after the month in which the 40th instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession has been deposited.
2. For any State which deposits its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession after the date of the deposit of the 40th instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, this Convention shall enter into force on the first day of the sixth month after the date on which that State has deposited its instrument of ratification, acceptance, approval or accession.
Any State may at the time of its ratification, acceptance, approval or accession, declare that it will apply provisionally paragraph 1 of Article 1 of this Convention pending its entry into force.
The Articles of this Convention shall not be subject to reservations.
Duration and withdrawal
1. This Convention shall be of unlimited duration.
2. Each State Party shall, in exercising its national sovereignty, have the right to withdraw from this Convention. It shall give notice of such withdrawal to all other States Parties, to the Depositary and to theUnited Nations Security Council. Such instrument of withdrawal shall include a full explanation of the reasons motivating this withdrawal.
3. Such withdrawal shall only take effect six months after the receipt of the instrument of withdrawal by the Depositary. If, however, on the expiry of that six- month period, the withdrawing State Party is engaged in an armed conflict, the withdrawal shall not take effect before the end of the armed conflict.
4. The withdrawal of a State Party from this Convention shall not in any way affect the duty of States to continue fulfilling the obligations assumed under any relevant rules of international law.
The Secretary-General of the United Nations is hereby designated as the Depositary of this Convention.
The original of this Convention, of which the Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish texts are equally authentic, shall be deposited with the Secretary-General of the United Nations.
1997 Convention on the Prohibition of the Use, Stockpiling, Production and Transfer of Anti-Personnel Mines and on their Destruction (1997 Mine Ban Treaty)
ENTRY INTO FORCE: 1 March 1999, in accordance with article 17 (1).
As of 23 April 1999, 135 signatories/accession and 75 ratifications, accession or approval.
Note: the first date is signature, the second date is ratification.
States may become bound without signature through a one step procedure known as accession. This is indicated with (A)
Albania 8 Sept 1998
Algeria 3 Dec 1997
Andorra 3 Dec 1997; 29 Jun 1998
Angola 4 Dec 1997
Antigua and Barbuda 3 Dec 1997
Argentina 4 Dec 1997
Australia 3 Dec 1997; 14 Jan 1999
Austria 3 Dec 1997; 29 Jun 1998
Bahamas 3 Dec 1997; 31 Jul 1998
Bangladesh 7 May 1998
Barbados 3 Dec 1997; 26 Jan 1999
Belgium 3 Dec 1997; 4 Sep 1998
Belize 27 Feb 1998; 23 Apr 1998
Benin 3 Dec 1997; 25 Sept 1998
Bolivia 3 Dec 1997; 9 Jun 1998 Bosnia&Herzegovina 3 Dec 1997; 8 Sep 1998
Botswana 3 Dec 1997
Brazil 3 Dec 1997
Brunei Darussalam 4 Dec 1997
Bulgaria 3 Dec 1997; 4 Sep 1998
Burkina Faso 3 Dec 1997; 16 Sep 1998
Burundi 3 Dec 1997
Cambodia 3 Dec 1997
Cameroon 3 Dec 1997
Canada 3 Dec 1997; 3 Dec 1997
Cape Verde 4 Dec 1997
Chad 6 Jul 1998
Chile 3 Dec 1997
Colombia 3 Dec 1997
Cook Islands 3 Dec 1997
Costa Rica 3 Dec 1997; 17 Mar 1999
Côte d'Ivoire 3 Dec 1997
Croatia 4 Dec 1997; 20 May 1998
Cyprus 4 Dec 1997
Czech Republic 3 Dec 1997
Denmark 4 Dec 1997; 8 Jun 1998
Djibouti 3 Dec 1997; 18 May 1998
Dominica 3 Dec 1997; 26 March 1999
Dominican Republic 3 Dec 1997
Ecuador 4 Dec 1997
El Salvador 4 Dec 1997; 27 Jan 1999
Equatorial Guinea 16 Sep 1998 A
Ethiopia 3 Dec 1997
Fiji 3 Dec 1997; 10 Jun 1998
France 3 Dec 1997; 23 Jul 1998
Gabon 3 Dec 1997
Gambia 4 Dec 1997
Germany 3 Dec 1997; 23 Jul 1998
Ghana 4 Dec 1997
Greece 3 Dec 1997
Grenada 3 Dec 1997; 19 Aug 1998
Guatemala 3 Dec 1997; 26 March 1999
Guinea 4 Dec 1997; 8 Oct 1998
Guinea-Bissau 3 Dec 1997
Guyana 4 Dec 1997
Haiti 3 Dec 1997
Holy See 4 Dec 1997; 17 Feb 1998
Honduras 3 Dec 1997; 24 Sept 1998
Hungary 3 Dec 1997; 6 Apr 1998
Iceland 4 Dec 1997
Indonesia 4 Dec 1997
Ireland 3 Dec 1997; 3 Dec 1997
Italy 3 Dec 1997
Jamaica 3 Dec 1997; 17 Jul 1998
Japan 3 Dec 1997; 30 Sept 1998
Jordan 11 Aug 1998; 13 Nov 1998
Kenya 5 Dec 1997
Lesotho 4 Dec 1997; 2 Dec 1998
Liechtenstein 3 Dec 1997
Lithuania 26 Feb 1999
Luxembourg 4 Dec 1997
Macedonia, FYR 9 Sep 1998 A
Madagascar 4 Dec 1997
Maldives, 1 Oct 1998
Malaysia 3 Dec 1997; 22 April 1999
Malawi 4 Dec 1997; 13 Aug 1998
Mali 3 Dec 1997; 2 Jun 1998
Malta 4 Dec 1997
Marshall Islands 4 Dec 1997
Mauritania 3 Dec 1997
Mauritius 3 Dec 1997; 3 Dec 1997
Mexico 3 Dec 1997; 9 Jun 1998
Moldova, Republic of 3 Dec 1997
Monaco 4 Dec 1997; 17 Nov 1998
Mozambique 3 Dec 1997; 25 Aug 1998
Namibia 3 Dec 1997; 21 Sep 1998
Netherlands 3 Dec 1997; 12 April 1999
New Zealand 3 Dec 1997; 27 Jan 1999
Nicaragua 4 Dec 1997; 30 Nov 1998
Niger 4 Dec 1997; 23 March 1999
Niue 3 Dec 1997; 15 Apr 1998
Norway 3 Dec 1997; 9 Jul 1998
Panama 4 Dec 1997; 7 Oct 1998
Paraguay 3 Dec 1997; 13 Nov 1998
Peru 3 Dec 1997; 17 Jun 1998
Philippines 3 Dec 1997
Poland 4 Dec 1997
Portugal 3 Dec 1997; 19 Feb 1999
Qatar 4 Dec 1997; 13 Oct 1998
Romania 3 Dec 1997
Rwanda 3 Dec 1997
Saint Kitts and Nevis 3 Dec 1997; 2 Dec 1998
Saint Lucia 3 Dec 1997; 13 April 1999
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3 Dec 1997
Samoa 3 Dec 1997; 23 Jul 1998
San Marino 3 Dec 1997; 18 Mar 1998
Sao Tome and Principe 30 Apr 1998
Senegal 3 Dec 1997; 24 Sept 1998
Seychelles 4 Dec 1997
Sierra Leone 29 Jul 1998
Slovakia 3 Dec 1997; 25 Feb 1999
Slovenia 3 Dec 1997; 27 Oct 1998
Solomon Islands 4 Dec 1997; 26 Jan 1999
South Africa 3 Dec 1997; 26 Jun 1998
Spain 3 Dec 1997; 19 Jan 1999
Sudan 4 Dec 1997
Suriname 4 Dec 1997
Swaziland 4 Dec 1997; 23 Dec 1998
Sweden 4 Dec 1997; 30 Nov 1998
Switzerland 3 Dec 1997; 24 Mar 1998
Thailand 3 Dec 1997; 27 Nov 1998
Togo 4 Dec 1997
Trinidad&Tobago 4 Dec 1997; 27 Apr 1998
Tunisia 4 Dec 1997
Turkmenistan 3 Dec 1997; 19 Jan 1998
Uganda 3 Dec 1997; 25 Feb 1999
Ukraine 24 Feb 1999
United Kingdom 3 Dec 1997; 31 Jul 1998
United Republic of Tanzania 3 Dec 1997
Uruguay 3 Dec 1997
Vanuatu 4 Dec 1997
Venezuela 3 Dec 1997; 14 April 1999
Yemen 4 Dec 1997; 1 Sep 1998
Zambia 12 Dec 1997
Zimbabwe 3 Dec 1997; 18 Jun 1998