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Chastnoe opredelenie: A separate ruling issued by a court (in conjunction with a verdict) to state agencies, public organizations, or officials when the presiding judge has established that these agencies bear special responsibility to address human rights violations or other violations of the law, circumstances that promoted the crime that was the subject of the judge's verdict, or other reasons that explain why the crime was committed the crime.

CIS: Commonwealth of Independent States.

Convention against Torture: The United Nations Convention against Torture and other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

CPT: The Council of Europe Committee for the Prevention of Torture and Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment.

Detention report (protokol zaderzhaniia): A report confirming that a suspect has been detained before the procuracy has issued a warrant.

ECHR: The European Convention on Human Rights.

GAI (Gosudarstvennaia avtoinspektsiia): State automobile inspection

GOM (Gorodskoe otdelenie militsii): City police department

ICCPR: The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights.

IVS (Izoliator vremennogo soderzhaniia): Temporary holding cell at a police station.

Fel'dsher: Senior nurse.

Konvertik (The envelope): Torture through a form of trussing, in which the detainee is forced to sit with his head between his bent knees and hands tied to his feet.

KPZ (Kamera predvaritel'nogo zakliucheniia): Soviet era term for a temporary holding cell at a police station (old name).

Lastochka (The swallow): A form of body suspension, the victim's hands are cuffed behind his back and attached to an iron bar or pipe, from which he hangs without his legs touching the ground.

MVD (Ministerstvo vnutrennikh del): Ministry of Internal Affairs.

OMON (Otriad militsii osobogo naznacheniia): Riot police.

Procuracy (prokuratura): State agency responsibility for both criminal investigation and prosecution, and human rights protection.

ROVD (Raionnoe otdelenie vnutrennikh del): District police department.

RUOP (Rainnoe upravlenie po bor'be s organizovannoi prestupnost'iu): District level organized crime police.

SIZO (Sledstvennyi izoliator): Pretrial detention center.

Skoraia pomoshch: Ambulance.

Slonik (The elephant): Torture by near asphyxiation. Police officers force an old-fashioned gas mask over the head of their victim and cut the oxygen supply. Thistype of torture is called "slonik" because of the resemblance of the gas mask's hose to an elephant's trunk.

Travmapunkt: Medical emergency room.

Uchastkovyi vrach: General practitioner.

UNHCR: United Nations High Commissioner on Refugees

Visiak: (plural: visiaki) Crimes that police are unable to solve for long periods.

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