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This report was researched and written by Elahé Sharifpour Hicks, researcher for the Middle East and North Africa Division of Human Rights Watch. The report was edited by Hanny Megally, executive director of the Middle East and North Africa Division of Human Rights Watch; Joe Stork, advocacy director for the Middle East and North Africa Division; and Michael McClintock, deputy program director of Human Rights Watch. Dinah PoKempner, deputy general counsel of Human Rights Watch, also reviewed the report. Production assistance was provided by Elizabeth Mirarchi, associate for the Middle East and North Africa Division; Patrick Minges, publications director; and Fitzroy Hepkins, mail manager.

The author wishes to acknowledge and thank all the Iranian journalists who spoke freely and whose testimony made this report possible.

Human Rights Watch

Middle East and North Africa Division

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

We stand with victims and activists to bring offenders to justice, to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom and to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime.

We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable.

We challenge governments and those holding power to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law.

We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.

The staff includes Kenneth Roth, executive director; Michele Alexander, development director; Reed Brody, advocacy director; Carroll Bogert, communications director; Cynthia Brown, program director; Barbara Guglielmo, finance director; Jeri Laber, special advisor; Lotte Leicht, Brussels office director; Patrick Minges, publications director; Susan Osnos, associate director; Maria Pignataro Nielsen, human resources director; Jemera Rone, counsel; Wilder Tayler, general counsel; and Joanna Weschler, United Nations representative. Jonathan Fanton is the chair of the board. Robert L. Bernstein is the founding chair.

Its Middle East division was established in 1989 to monitor and promote the observance of internationally recognized human rights in the Middle East and North Africa. Hanny Megally is the executive director; Eric Goldstein is the deputy director, Joe Stork is the advocacy director; Virginia N. Sherry is associate director; Clarisa Bencomo, Elahé Sharifpour-Hicks, and Nejla Sammakia are researchers; Sara Eggerling and Beth Mirarchi are associates. Lisa Anderson and Gary Sick are co-chairs of the advisory committee and Bruce Rabb is vice chair.

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