Civilian Casualties During the Air Campaign and Violations of the Laws of War
New York:Human Rights Watch, (c)1991.



Introduction and Summary of Conclusions



Chapter One: The Legal Regime Governing the Conduct of Air Warfare

  1. International Humanitarian Law
  2. Military Necessity and the Principle of Humanity
  3. U.N. General Assembly Resolution 2444
  4. Customary Law and Protocol I: Civilian Immunity and the Principle of Distinction
  5. General Restrictions on Air Warfare
  6. Restraints on Attacks: Prohibition of Disproportionate and other Indiscriminate Attacks
  7. Precautionary Measures
  8. Verification of Military Objectives
  9. Collateral Casualties and Damage
  10. The Rule of Proportionality
  11. Cancellation or Suspension of Attacks
  12. Warning Requirement
  13. Special Legal Protection
  14. Prohibition Against Starvation of the Civilian Population
  15. Special Protection for Civilian Defense Shelters


Chapter Two: U.S. Public Statements

Chapter Three: The Means and Methods of Attack

  1. U.S. Public Statements
  2. Daytime Bomb and Missile Attacks on Targets in Populated Areas
    1. One Hundred Killed in Daytime Attack on Bridge in Southern City
    2. Scores of Civilians Killed in Flawed Attack on Bridge in Western Iraq
    3. Denials and then Admissions by the Allies about the Attack
    4. Scores of Civilians Killed in Daytime Attack on Bridge near Market in Southern City
    5. Scores of Workers Killed in Market Area of Southeastern City
    6. Morning Bombing Near Crowded Market Area in Basra 
    7. Daytime Bombing of Bridges in Basra 
    8. Scores of Civilians, Waiting for Cooking Gas, Killed and Injured During Daytime Attack
    9. Civilian Factory in Southern City Bombed in Afternoon; Seven Killed
    10. Legal Standards, Conclusions and Unanswered Questions
  3. "Smart" Bombs, "Dumb" Bombs, and Inaccurate Attacks on Targets in Civilian Population Centers
  4. The Lack of Warning Prior to Attack: The Ameriyya Air Raid Shelter

Chapter Four: Objects Attacked: The Need for Full Disclosure and Accountability

  1. Target Selection: The Need for Public Disclosure
  2. Reports of Attacks on Food, Agricultural and Water-Treatment Facilities
  3. The Crippling of the Electrical System
  4. Civilian Vehicles on Highways
    1. U.S. Public Statements
    2. An Inquiry by Middle East Watch
    3. Eyewitness Accounts: Attacks on Civilian Vehicles Carrying Evacuees to Jordan
      1. Two cars directly hit by diving aircraft in daytime attack, killing two families
      2. 30 killed in attack on bus
      3. Cluster bomb falls meters from two cars in dawn attack
      4. Strafing of Buses on Highways During Daytime
      5. Southern Iraq: 31 Dead in Daytime Attack on Civilian Vehicles 
    4. Legal Standards and Conclusions
    5. Attacks on Jordanian Civilian Oil Tankers
    6. Jordan's Dilemma:Dependence on Imported Oil
    7. Civilian Trucker Casualties: Eyewitness Testimony
      1. Convoy of Four Tankers Attacked
      2. 28-truck convoy hit in nighttime attack
      3. One Driver Killed, Others Injured, whenAircraft Machine-gunned Five-truck Convoy
      4. Cluster Bomb Dropped at Truck Stop in Afternoon Attack
      5. Two Tankers Destroyed at Intersection
      6. Cluster Bomb Dropped in Daytime Attack, Two Injured
      7. Refrigerator Truck Attacked NearBorder
      8. Other Accounts of Strafing of Trucks by Allied Aircraft
    8. Legal Standards and Conclusions
  5. Attacks on Bedouin Tents

Chapter Five: The View from the Ground: Eyewitness Accounts of Civilian Casualties and Damage

  1. Summary of Findings
  2. Baghdad
    1. Bombing in the Bataween Quarter: What Were the Targets?
    2. Cruise Missiles in the Karada and Masbah Quarters: What were the Targets?
    3. Destruction of the Central Bank
    4. Civilians Killed in Attack on Major Bus Station
    5. Five to Six Houses Totally Destroyed in the Working-class Quarter
    6. Six Houses in Residential Neighborhood Sustain Direct Hit
    7. Commercial Area in Residential Neighborhood bombed; Four Homes Damaged
    8. Five Homes Collapse, Killing Family of Six
    9. Five Residential Buildings in Vicinity of Doura Oil Refinery completely destroyed
    10. Reports of Damage Near Bridges
      1. Restaurant Destroyed, Civilians Killed, Near Sarafiya Bridge
      2. Five Houses Damaged, Civilians Injured and Killed, Near Sarafiya Bridge 
      3. Shops and Two Cinemas Damaged near Jumhouriyya Bridge
      4. Restaurant Destroyed near Jumhouriyya Bridge 
  3. Basra
    1. Two Missiles Crash into Crowded Market in Daytime Attack
    2. Ashshar Market Area in Downtown Basra Sustains Damage from Two Missiles
    3. 25 Houses Destroyed in Middle-class Neighborhood During Nighttime Attack; at Least 11 Killed
    4. About 60 Homes Damaged in Several Attacks in al-Ma'qil Neighborhood
    5. Eight Adobe Houses Destroyed in al-Zubayr
    6. Only Hospital in al-Zubayr Destroyed
    7. Mosque Damaged
    8. Bombs Miss Small Bridge, Hit Hospital
    9. Small Bridge Missed Again
    10. 50 Homes Damaged, Ten Killed, as Bombs Miss Telecommunications Tower in Daytime Attack
    11. Nighttime Bombing of Railroad Station
    12. Soda-bottling Plant Destroyed
    13. Reports of Attacks on Oil-industry Administrative Buildings
  4. Other Cities and Towns in Southern Iraq
    1. 20 Houses Destroyed in an Agricultural Village
    2. 36 Houses Destroyed or Damaged in Nighttime Attack
    3. Three Houses Destroyed in an AgriculturalVillage
    4. Two-story Medical Clinic Destroyed
    5. Three Residential Buildings Destroyed
    6. Two-story House Destroyed as Bomb Misses Bridge by 500 Meters
    7. Bomb Misses Bridge by 500 Meters, Falls in Residential Quarter, Six Killed
    8. Bridge Missed Again, One Killed
    9. Health Clinic and Several Houses Destroyed in Bombing of Bridges
    10. Bomb Misses Telecommunications Tower; at least 20 Killed in Two-story House
    11. Telecommunications Tower Missed; 11 Killed When Hotel is Destroyed
    12. Civilian Casualties in Bombing of Bus Station in Hilla
    13. Civilian Casualties and Damage in Samawa from Cluster Bombs
  5. Cities and Towns in Western and Northern Iraq
    1. Bomb Hits House in Early Evening, Killing Five
    2. Airplane Opens Fire, Killing Members of Wedding Party
    3. Bomb Hits House in Midnight Attack, Injured Family of 14 Survives
    4. School Completely Destroyed, Hotel Damaged, at least Three Civilians Killed
    5. 23 Houses in Agricultural Area Hit with Bombs in Two Separate Attacks, No Survivors
    6. Reports from Northern Iraq


Chapter Six: Targets in Israel and the Gulf States: Iraq's Public Statements

Chapter Seven: Means and Methods of Attack and Defense

Chapter Eight: Civilian Casualties and Damage: Israel

  1. The First Attack: Early Morning Hours of January 18
  2. The Second Attack: January 19
  3. The Third and Most Damaging Attack: January 22
  4. No Casualties in the Fourth Attack: January 23
  5. Wide Collateral Damage in the Fifth Attack: January 25
  6. The Sixth Attack on January 26: Varying Figures, Unknown Targets
  7. Two Missiles Land in Occupied West Bank: January 28 and January 31
  8. No Casualties or Damage Reported: Attacks on Night of February 2-3
  9. Iraq Claims Another Attack: February 6
  10. Civilian Damage in the Eleventh Attack: February 9
  11. Two Attacks in Rapid Succession: February 11 and February 12
  12. An Apparently Harmless Attack: February 16
  13. The Fifteenth Attack: February 19
  14. Sixteenth Attack: February 23
  15. The Last Missiles: Early Morning Hours of February 25

Chapter Nine: Civilian Casualties and Damage: Saudi Arabia

  1. The First Attacks: Dhahran Air Base
  2. First Missiles Fired at Riyadh on January 21, 12 Injured
  3. Conflicting Information About the Cause of Damage on the Ground
  4. The Second Attack on Riyadh, No Civilian Casualties
  5. Five Missiles Fired on January 23, No Civilian Casualties Reported
  6. First Civilian Killed as Missile Levels Wing of Interior Ministry Building in Riyadh on January 25, 30 Injured
  7. The Next Two Attacks: No Reported Casualties orDamage 
  8. 29 Injured in Riyadh: February 3
  9. No Casualties in February 8 Attack
  10. Two Foreign Workers Injured in Riyadh: February 11
  11. Four Slightly Injured in Daytime Attack on Hafr al-Batin: February