December 16, 2011

“By All Means Necessary!”

Individual and Command Responsibility for Crimes against Humanity in Syria

Map of Syria
Summary
Killings of Protesters and Bystanders
Arbitrary Arrests, Torture, and Executions
Denial of Medical Assistance
Command Responsibility of High-Ranking Officers and Government Officials
Repercussions for Disobeying Illegal Orders
Recommendations
Methodology
I. Background
Protests in Syria
Deployment of Syria’s Security Forces
Defections from Armed Forces and Security Agencies
II. Individual and Command Responsibility for Crimes against Humanity
Killings of Protesters and Bystanders
Standing orders
Direct orders
Direct participation in killings
Arbitrary Detention and Torture
Large-scale arbitrary arrests and looting
Orders to beat and mistreat the detainees
Torture at detention facilities
Executions, deaths in custody and allegations of mass graves
Denial of Medical Assistance
Command Responsibility of High-Ranking Officers and Government Officials
III. Repercussions for Disobeying Illegal Orders
Executions
Detention and Torture
Repercussions for Families of Defectors
IV. Syrian Government Response
V. International Response
VI. Recommendations
To the UN Security Council
To All Countries
To the UN General Assembly
To the UN Human Rights Council and its Members
To Turkey
To India, Brazil, and South Africa
To Russia and China
To the Syrian Government
Acknowledgments
Appendix
Structure and Command, Armed Forces
Presidential (Republican) Guard
Division
Division
Division
Division
Division
Special Forces
Structure and Command, Intelligence Agencies
National Security Bureau
Department of Military Intelligence (Shu’bat al-Mukhabarat al-‘Askariyya
Air Force Intelligence Directorate (Idarat al-Mukhabarat al-Jawiyya
General Security Directorate (Idarat al-Amn al-Amm
Political Security Directorate (Idarat al-Amn al-Siyasi
Military Terminology