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Targeting Blacks: Drug Law Enforcement and Race in the United States

Targeting Blacks

Drug Law Enforcement and Race in the United States

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Acknowledgments

I. Introduction

II. Recommendations

III. Background: The War on Drugs and the US Criminal Justice System

Fig.1: Drug Abuse Violation Arrests

IV. Race and the Incarceration of Drug Offenders

Drug Offenses and Black Incarceration

Table 1: Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses as a Percentage of All Admissions, by Race and Gender, 2003

Racial Composition of Drug Offender Admissions

Racial Disparities in Rates of Admission

Table 2: Number of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 2003

Fig.2: Racial Composition of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, 2003

Table 3: Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Gender and Race, 2003

Fig.3: Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 2003

Fig.4: Ratio of Black:White Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, 2003

Table 4: Ranking of States by Ratio of Black:White Prison Admission Rates for Drug Offenses, 2003

Fig.5: Correlation of White and Black Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, 2003

Race and Gender

Fig.6: Male Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 2003

Fig.7: Female Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 2003

Table 5: Ratio of Black:White Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses by Gender, 2003

V. Changes between 1996 and 2003

Racial Disparities 1996-2003

Table 6: Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 1996 and 2003

Table 7: Ratio of Black:White Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, 1996 and 2003

Table 8: Racial Composition of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, 1996 and 2003

Table 9: Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses as a Percentage of All Admissions, by Race, 1996 and 2003

Race and Gender 1996-2003

Table 10: Male Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 1996 and 2003

Table 11: Female Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 1996 and 2003

Table 12: Ratio of Black:White Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses by Gender, 1996 and 2003

VI. Origins of Racial Disparities in Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses

Rates of Illegal Drug Activity

Drug Users

Fig.8: Lifetime Drug Use by Race, Ages 12 and Older

Drug Sellers

Rates of Arrest

Table 13: US Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations, 2006

From Arrest to Imprisonment

Case Study: New York

Table 14: New York Drug Arrests by Region and Race/Ethnicity: 2002

Fig 9: Black Drug Arrests, New York City and New York State

Table 15: Race and Ethnicity of New Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses In New York, 2006

Case Study: Illinois

Case Study: Seattle

Case Study: A Focus on Counties

VII. Racial Injustice and Human Rights

VIII. Conclusion

IX. Methodology

Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses

Race and Prison Admissions

Rates of Admission

Total Figures

Limitations

External Validity

Reporting of the Cases

Duplication

Missing Data on Race

 

May 2008   ISBN: 1-56432-315-3