July 7, 2005

Blood-Stained Hands

Past Atrocities in Kabul and Afghanistan's Legacy of Impunity

Human Rights Watch

Copyright 2005 by Human Rights Watch.

All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

ISBN: 1-56432-334-X

Cover photos: A mujahedin fighter in Kabul, June 1992. 1992 Ed Grazda

Civilians fleeing a street battle in west Kabul, March 5, 1993. 1993 Robert Nickelsberg

Cover design by Rafael Jimenez

Human Rights Watch

350 Fifth Avenue, 34th floor New York, NY 10118-3299 USA Tel: 1-(212) 290-4700, Fax: 1-(212) 736-1300 hrwnyc@hrw.org1630 Connecticut Avenue, N.W., Suite 500Washington, DC20009USA Tel:1-(202) 612-4321, Fax:1-(202) 612-4333 hrwdc@hrw.org

2nd Floor, 2-12 Pentonville RoadLondonN1 9HF, UK Tel: 44 20 7713 1995, Fax: 44 20 7713 1800 hrwuk@hrw.orgRue Van Campenhout 15, 1000 Brussels, Belgium Tel: 32 (2) 732-2009, Fax: 32 (2) 732-0471 hrwatcheu@skynet.be9 rue Cornavin 1201 Geneva Tel: + 41 22 738 04 81, Fax: + 41 22 738 17 91 hrwgva@hrw.org

Web Site Address: http://www.hrw.org

Listserv address: To receive Human Rights Watch news releases by email, subscribe to the HRW news listserv of your choice by visiting http://hrw.org/act/subscribe-mlists/subscribe.htm

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

We stand with victims and activists to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom, to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime, and to bring offenders to justice.

We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable.

We challenge governments and those who hold power to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law.

We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.

HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH

Human Rights Watch conducts regular, systematic investigations of human rights abuses in some seventy countries around the world. Our reputation for timely, reliable disclosures has made us an essential source of information for those concerned with human rights. We address the human rights practices of governments of all political stripes, of all geopolitical alignments, and of all ethnic and religious persuasions. Human Rights Watch defends freedom of thought and expression, due process and equal protection of the law, and a vigorous civil society; we document and denounce murders, disappearances, torture, arbitrary imprisonment, discrimination, and other abuses of internationally recognized human rights. Our goal is to hold governments accountable if they transgress the rights of their people.

Human Rights Watch began in 1978 with the founding of its Europe and Central Asia division (then known as Helsinki Watch). Today, it also includes divisions covering Africa, the Americas, Asia, and the Middle East. In addition, it includes three thematic divisions on arms, children's rights, and women's rights. It maintains offices in Brussels, Geneva, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, New York, San Francisco, Tashkent, Toronto, and Washington. Human Rights Watch is an independent, nongovernmental organization, supported by contributions from private individuals and foundations worldwide.It accepts no government funds, directly or indirectly.

The staff includes Kenneth Roth, Executive Director; Allison Adoradio, Operations Director; Michele Alexander, Development and Outreach Director; Carroll Bogert, Associate Director;Widney Brown, Deputy Program Director; Peggy Hicks, Global Advocacy Director; Iain Levine, Program Director; Dinah PoKempner, General Counsel; James Ross, Senior Legal Advisor; Joseph Saunders, Deputy Program Director; and Wilder Tayler, Legal and Policy Director.

The program directors of Human Rights Watch are Brad Adams, Asia; Holly Cartner, Europe and Central Asia; Richard Dicker, International Justice; Jamie Fellner, United States; Arvind Ganesan, Business and Human Rights; Steve Goose, Arms; LaShawn R. Jefferson, Women's Rights; Scott Long, Lesbian, Gay Bisexual and Transgender Rights; Peter Takirambudde, Africa; Jos Miguel Vivanco, Americas; Lois Whitman, Children's Rights; and Sarah Leah Whitson, Middle East and North Africa.

The advocacy directors of Human Rights Watch are Steve Crawshaw, London; Loubna Freih, Geneva; Lotte Leicht, Brussels; Tom Malinowski, Washington; and Joanna Weschler, United Nations.

The members of the board are Jane Olson, Chair; James F. Hoge, Jr., Vice-Chair; Sid Sheinberg, Vice-Chair; John J. Studzinski, Vice-Chair; Omar Amanat, Lloyd Axworthy, David M. Brown, Dorothy Cullman, Edith Everett, Jonathan F. Fanton (Chair 1998-2003), Michael E. Gellert, Richard J. Goldstone, Vartan Gregorian, Wendy Keys, Robert Kissane, Bruce Klatsky, Joanne Leedom-Ackerman, Josh Mailman, Susan Manilow, Kati Marton, Lore Harp McGovern, Barry Meyer, Joel Motley, Samuel K. Murumba, Catherine Powell, Sigrid Rausing, Victoria Riskin, Kevin Ryan, Domna Stanton, Shibley Telhami.

Emeritus board members are Roland Algrant, Lisa Anderson, Robert L. Bernstein (Founding Chair 1978-1997), William D. Carmichael, Adrian W. DeWind, Alice H. Henkin, Stephen L. Kass, Marina Pinto Kaufman, Peter Osnos, Kathleen Peratis, Bruce Rabb, Orville Schell, Gary Sick, and Malcolm B. Smith.