January 30, 2014

[1] Satellite imagery used in this report was recorded on the mornings of July 16, August 4 and 28, September 8, 22 and 28, October 3 and 13, November 29, 2012, February 4, April 30, May 23 and 29, July 1, and November 20, 2013. Imagery sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014.

[2]إزالة مخالفات مشاع الأربعين ليس لتشريد الأهالي ,”(The removal of violations in Mosha’ al-Arb’eenis not fordisplacing residents), Damas Post, October 9, 2012, http://www.damaspost.com/%D9%85%D8%AD%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%AA/%D8%A5%D8%B2%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A9-%D9%85%D8%AE%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%81%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%85%D8%B4%D8%A7%D8%B9-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%B1%D8%A8%D8%B9%D9%8A%D9%86-%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%B3-%D9%84%D8%AA%D8%B4%D8%B1%D9%8A%D8%AF-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D9%87%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%8A.htm (accessed January 9, 2014);

تطهير مناطق في الحجر الأسود بريف دمشق وعمليات نوعية في حلب ,”

(Clearing areasin Hajjar al-Aswadin Damascus Suburbs and uniqueoperationsin Aleppo)

Damas Post, September 20, 2012, http://www.damaspost.com/%D8%B3%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%B3%D8%A9/%D8%AA%D8%B7%D9%87%D9%8A%D8%B1-%D9%85%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%B7%D9%82-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AD%D8%AC%D8%B1-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D8%B3%D9%88%D8%AF-%D8%A8%D8%B1%D9%8A%D9%81-%D8%AF%D9%85%D8%B4%D9%82-%D9%88%D8%B9%D9%85%D9%84%D9%8A%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D9%86%D9%88%D8%B9%D9%8A%D8%A9-%D9%81%D9%8A-%D8%AD%D9%84%D8%A8.htm (accessed January 9, 2014).

[3] Human Rights Watch phone interview, January 30, 2013.

[4] Human Rights Watch phone interview, January 28, 2013; Human Rights Watch phone interview, January 11, 2012.

[5] Human Rights Watch phone interview, January 30, 2013.

[6] See for example, قواتنا المسلحةتقضي على عدد كبير من الإرهابيين في حلب وتكبدهم خسائر فادحة وتطهر حي جوبر بدمشق,” (“Our armed forceseliminateda large number ofterroristsin Aleppoand inflicted heavy losses on them andcleansed Jobarneighborhood [from terrorists]inDamascus”)

SANA state news agency, September 27, 2012, http://sana.sy/ara/336/2012/09/27/443895.htm (accessed january 9, 2014); “وإصابة العشرات من الإرهابيين بعضهم من جنسيات عربية وأجنبية بأحياء بحلب وآخرون يستسلمون..ضبط سيارة محملة بأسلحة متنوعة في كراج الصناعة,” (“And wounding dozensofterrorists, some of them Arab and foreignnationalities in Alepponeighborhoodsandotherssurrender..Seizinga car in industry garage loaded withvariety ofweapons”), Syria Now, http://www.syrianow.sy/index.php?p=7&id=59339 (accessed January 9, 2014).

[7] Human Rights Watch phone interview, November 14, 2012.

[8] Human Rights Watch phone interview, January 30, 2013.

[9] Human Rights Watch phone interview, January 28, 2013.

[10]Satellite imagery dates analyzed by Human Rights Watch: September 22, October 3 and 13, 2012; Sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014.

[11] Ibid.

[12] Ibid

[13]المباشرة بتنظيم حي مشاع وادي الجوز بمدينة حماة وإزالة كل أشكال المخالفات ,”( “Moving forth with organizing Mosha’ Wadi Al Joz neighborhoodin thecityof Hamaand removingallforms ofviolations”), SANA state news agency, May 1, 2013, http://sana.sy/ara/347/2013/05/01/480181.htm (accessed January 9, 2014).

[14] “Syrian Arab Army Restore Security to Several Areas in Hama,” Syria Times, May 1, 2013, http://syriatimes.sy/index.php/news/local/4788-syrian-arab-army-restore-security-to-several-areas-in-hama (accessed August 1, 2013);

القضاء على أعداد من الإرهابيين ودك أوكارهم وتدمير أدوات إجرامهم في أرياف دمشقوحمص واللاذقية وحلب" ,“(“Eliminating terroristsand destroyingtheir hideoutsand their criminal toolsin ruralDamascus, Homs,Latakia andAleppo”), SANA state news agency, May 2, 2013,

http://sana.sy/ara/336/2013/05/02/480123.htm (accessed January 9, 2014); “سانا: الجيش السوري يعيد الأمن الى وادي الجوز ويضبط مصنعاً للعبوات الناسفة ,” (“SANA: Syrian armyrestoressecurityinWadi Al Jozandcaptures a factory for manufacturingimprovised explosive device”), Almada, May 1, 2013, http://almada.ndpcdn.com/news/index/4300/%D8%B3%D8%A7%D9%86%D8%A7--%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%8A%D8%B4-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%B3%D9%88%D8%B1%D9%8A-%D9%8A%D8%B9%D9%8A%D8%AF-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A3%D9%85%D9%86-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%89-%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%AF%D9%8A-%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%AC%D9%88%D8%B2-%D9%88%D9%8A%D8%B6%D8%A8%D8%B7-%D9%85%D8%B5%D9%86%D8%B9%D8%A7%D9%8B-%D9%84%D9%84%D8%B9%D8%A8%D9%88%D8%A7%D8%AA-%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%86%D8%A7%D8%B3%D9%81%D8%A9 (accessed January 9, 2014).

[15] Human Rights Watch interview, Lebanon, July 11, 2013.

[16] Human Rights Watch interview, Lebanon, July 11, 2013.

[17] Human Rights Watch phone interview, July 31, 2013.

[18]Satellite imagery dates analyzed by Human Rights Watch: April 30, and May 29, 2013; Sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014.

[19] Human Rights Watch interview, Lebanon, July 11, 2013.

[20] Human Rights Watch phone interview, November 5, 2012.

[21]Satellite imagery dates analyzed by Human Rights Watch: July 16, August 4 and 28, September 8 and 22, October 3, 2012, February 4, July 1, and November 20, 2013; Sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014.

[22] Erika Solomon, “Fiercest fighting yet reported inside Damascus,” Reuters, July 15, 2012, http://uk.reuters.com/article/2012/07/15/uk-syria-crisis-idUKBRE8640R320120715 (accessed August 10, 2013).

[23] “Tanks roll on Damascus as violence reigns,” Al-Jazeera English, July 19, 2012, http://www.aljazeera.com/news/middleeast/2012/07/201271961645358140.html (accessed January 9, 2014).

[24] “Syrian Army Retakes Most of Damascus,” Naharnet, July 23, 2012, http://www.naharnet.com/stories/en/47542-syrian-army-retakes-most-of-damascus (accessed January 9, 2014); Bassem Mroue and Zeina Karam, “Syria conflict: Damascus Suffers Destruction, Hunger As Fighting hits Country’s Heart,” Huffington Post, July 23, 2012, http://www.huffingtonpost.com/2012/07/23/syria-conflict-damascus_n_1695623.html (accessed January 9, 2014).

[25] Human Rights Watch phone interview, November 24, 2013.

[26] Human Rights Watch phone interview, November 5, 2012.

[27]هدم المنازل والمحلات بالدبابات في القابون 28-7-2012,” (“The demolition of houses and shops with tanks in Qaboun 28-7-2012”), July 28, 2012, video clip, YouTube, http://youtu.be/b-8EHnmE7_4 (accessed August 12, 2013); Human Rights Watch identified the exact location by creating a photomosaic of the video and comparing this with satellite imagery.

[28]هاااااام دبابة تهدم المحلات في حي القابون 23-9-2012,” (“Important tank destroyed shops in the Qaboun neighborhood 23/09/2012”),September 23, 2012, video clip, YouTube, http://youtu.be/e3j9Lh9Fm08 (accessed August 13, 2013); “دمشق حي القابون :: الدمار في المنطقة الصناعية,” (“Damascus Qaboun neighborhood: destruction in the industrial area”), September 12, 2013, video clip, YouTube, http://youtu.be/puKtqPdumv8 (accessed August 13, 2013); “تهديم وتهبيط المنازل في القابون 29-9-2012,” (“Demolition and destruction of homes in Qaboun 29/09/2012”), September 29, 2013, video clip, YouTube, http://youtu.be/peyoOgWkMLw (accessed August 13, 2013); “هاام دبابات الاسد تقوم بتدمير حي القابون 27-9-2012,” (“Important Assad tanks destroys Qaboun neighborhood 27/09/2012”), September 27, 2012, video clip, YouTube, http://youtu.be/MkYM4Nm2wE0 (accessed August 13, 2013); “قابون - هدم المنازل بالدبابات - 29-9-2012, “ (“The demolition of houses with tanks - 29/09/2012”), September 29, 2012, video clip, YouTube, http://youtu.be/5GBjOn3nenI (accessed August 13, 2013).

[29] Human Rights Watch phone interview, November 5, 2012.

[30]Satellite imagery dates analyzed by Human Rights Watch: September 8 and 22, October 3, 2012, February 4, and July 1, 2013; Sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014.

[31] “Syria crisis: UN Assembly condemns Security Council,” BBC News, August 3, 2012, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-19106250 (accessed August 8, 2013).

[32] Human Rights Watch phone interview, February 18, 2013; Human Rights Watch phone interview February 19, 2013.

[33]Satellite imagery dates analyzed by Human Rights Watch: September 8 and 22, October 3, 2012, February 4 and July 1, 2013; Sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014.

[34] Human Rights Watch phone interview, February 21, 2013; Human Rights Watch phone interview, February 19, 2013.

[35] See for example, “Syrian Army Controls All of Damascus,” Naharnet, August 4, 2012, http://www.naharnet.com/stories/ar/48953(accessed August 5, 2013); “Syrian army declares Damascus' rebellious district ‘cleaned of armed groups’,” Xinhua News [English edition], August 5, 2012,http://news.xinhuanet.com/english/world/2012-08/05/c_123529591.htm (accessed August 13, 2013).

[36] Human Rights Watch phone interview, February 21, 2013; Human Rights Watch phone interview, February 19, 2013.

[37]Satellite imagery dates analyzed by Human Rights Watch: September 8 and 22, October 3, 2012, February 4 and July 1, 2013; Sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014.

[38] Human Rights Watch phone interview, February 21, 2013.

[39] Sam Dagher, “Fighting to Hold Damascus, Syria Flattens Rebel 'Slums',” Wall Street Journal, November 27, 2012,http://online.wsj.com/article/SB10001424052970204707104578092113759746982.html?mod=googlenews_wsj#articleTabs=article

[40]Satellite imagery dates analyzed by Human Rights Watch: September 22, and November 29, 2012; Sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014. See also, “الشبيحة تقوم بتفجيرالمباني في الزاهرة الجديدة 9 10 2012,” (“Shabeeha bombs the buildings in new al-Zahra 9 10 2012”), October 9, 2012, video clip, YouTube, http://youtu.be/Ol6w_hfwCjs (accessed August 12, 2013); “تـفجير وهدم الابنية في دمشق- الزاهرة من قبل قوات الاسد,” (“Bombing and demolition of buildings in Damascus – al Zahra by Assad forces”), September 24, 2012, video clip, YouTube, http://youtu.be/Lk8D9nJm-R4 (accessed August 10, 2013).

[41] Human Rights Watch phone interview, July 4, 2013.

[42]Satellite imagery dates analyzed by Human Rights Watch: September 22, October 3, and November 29, 2012, and February 4 and July 1, 2013; Sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014.

[43] Human Rights Watch phone interview, July 4, 2013. Some media articles about the demolition in Barzeh refer to decree 2190 from 1975. “قالت إنها ستؤمن منازل للمستحقين في برزة

محافظة دمشق: تم توجيه 155 إنذاراً لشاغلي عقارات مشروع طريق السلمية,” It [government] said it will provide houses to the beneficiaries in Barzeh Damascus Governorate: 155 warnings was directed to the occupants of the real estate project of al-Selmia road”

, Syria Steps, January 22, 2011, http://www.syriasteps.com/?d=207&id=62019 (accessed January 9, 2014); “الاستملاك مرسوم تتوارثه الأجيال دون تنفيذ!!,”(Expropriationdecreeinherited by generations without impelmentation!!!”) ,Jouhina, May 5,2007,

http://alsmu.com/jouhina.com/archive_article.php?id=1716 (accessed January 9, 2014).

[44] Human Rights Watch phone interview, July 4, 2013.

[45] Human Rights Watch phone interview, July 4, 2013.

[46] Satellite imagery recorded on September 22, October 3, and November 29, 2012; Sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014.

[47] Human Rights Watch phone interview, July 4, 2013.

[48] Human Rights Watch phone interview, July 4, 2013.

[49] Deborah Amos, “At Syrian Military Hospital, The Casualties Mount,” NPR, June 12, 2012, http://www.npr.org/2012/06/12/154858481/at-syrian-military-hospital-the-casualties-mount (accessed January 9, 2014); Jonathan Steele, “Fear follows the ‘martyrs’ on the roads to Damascus,” The Guardian, August 10, 2012, http://www.theguardian.com/world/2012/aug/10/damascus-syrian-military-hospital; Patrick Cockburn, “Fear and loathing of Syria’s fallen soldiers,” The Independent, December 11, 2012, http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/middle-east/fear-and-loathing-of-syrias-fallen-soldiers-8406496.html (accessed January 9, 2014).

[50] Ibid.

[51] Human Rights Watch phone interview, July 4, 2013.

[52]هدم منازل ومحلات المدنيين على طريق مشفى تشرين 6/10/2012,” (“The demolition ofhouses andshopson Teshreen hospital roadOctober6/10/2012"”), October 6, 2012, video clip, YouTube, http://youtu.be/afUt8ERBRSo (accessed January 9, 2014).

[53]Satellite imagery dates analyzed by Human Rights Watch: August 4 and 28, September 8, and November 29, 2012, February 4, and July 1, 2013; Sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014.

[54] Sam Dagher, “Fighting to Hold Damascus, Syria Flattens Rebel ‘Slums’,” The Wall Street Journal, November 27, 2012, http://online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970204707104578092113759746982 (accessed January 9, 2014).

[55]مرسوم بإحداث منطقتين تنظيميتين في نطاق محافظة دمشق ضمن المصور العام للمدينة,”(“The creation of two organizational decrees in the province of Damascus within the general scope of the City”), SANA state news agency, September 20, 2012, http://sana.sy/ara/2/2012/09/20/442479.htm(accessed January 9, 2014).

[56] http://www.nytimes.com/2012/08/27/world/middleeast/dozens-of-bodies-are-found-in-town-outside-damascus.html

[57]Satellite imagery dates analyzed by Human Rights Watch: August 4 and 28; Sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014.

[58] Human Rights Watch interview, Lebanon, June 19, 2013.

[59] Human Rights Watch interview, Lebanon, June 19, 2013.

[60] Human Rights Watch interview, Lebanon, June 19, 2013.

[61] Human Rights Watch interview, Lebanon, June 19, 2013.

[62]Satellite imagery dates analyzed by Human Rights Watch: August 4 and 28, September 8, and November 29, 2012, February 4, and July 1, 2013; Sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014.

[63]تفجير البيوت المحيطة بمطار المزة العسكري - السبت 16-2-2013,” (“Bombing of houses surrounding the Mezzeh military airport - Saturday 16/02/2013”), February 16, 2013, video clip, YouTube, http://youtu.be/Vsjg-KIkMMM (accessed August 13, 2013).

[64] Media reports refer to decree 18905. Human Rights Watch has not been able to obtain a copy of the decree itself. The most recent decree on the Syrian government’s site at the time of writing was issued in September 2012. Syrian Government, “Decisions/Resolutions,” (2007-2012), http://www.youropinion.gov.sy/ViewDecisions?type=k (accessed August 13, 2013); “الحكومة السورية تقرر استملاك مناطق على طريق مطار دمشق الدولي,” [The Syrian government decides to expropriate areas on the road to Damascus International Airport],”Sham Times, February 10,2013, http://www.chamtimes.com/157480.html, (accessed August 12, 2013); “الحكومة السورية تقرر استملاك مناطق على طريق مطار دمشق الدولي,” (“The Syrian government decides to expropriate areas on the road to Damascus International Airport”), http://www.dp-news.com/pages/detail.aspx?articleid=139831 (accessed August 13, 2013); “الحكومة السورية تستملك أراضي قرى محيطة بالمطار لتوسيع شبكة الكهرباء والأهالي يشككون في نواياها,” (“Syrian government expropriates the villages surrounding the airport lands for the expansion of the electricity grid and residents are skeptical about the intentions”), Anba Moscow, February 12, 2013, http://anbamoscow.com/aworld/20130212/380087626-print.html (accessed August 13, 2013).

[65] Human Rights Watch phone interview, July 26, 2013. See also: ““الحكومة السورية تستملك أراضي قرى محيطة بالمطار لتوسيع شبكة الكهرباء والأهالي يشككون في نواياها ,” (“Syrian government expropriates the villages surrounding the airport lands for the expansion of the electricity grid and residents are skeptical about the intentions”), Anba Moscow, February 12, 2013, http://anbamoscow.com/aworld/20130212/380087626-print.html (accessed August 13, 2013).

[66] Human Rights Watch phone interview, July 26, 2013.

[67]Satellite imagery dates analyzed by Human Rights Watch: August 28, 2012, and May 23, 2013; Sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014.

[68] “Syria conflict: 'Fierce clashes' near Damascus airport,” BBC News, November 29, 2012, http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-middle-east-20547799 (accessed August 12, 2013); “المجلس العسكري يتعهد السيطرة على مطار دمشق ,” (“Military Council vows to control Damascus airport”), Al Yaum, November 30, 2012, http://www.alyaum.com/News/art/64371.html (accessed August 8, 2013).

[69]الجيش العربي السوري يواصل تطهير ريف دمشق.. وقتلى الإرهابيين بالمئات أغلبهم من جنسيات غير سورية ,”(“Syrian Arab armycontinues tocleanseDamascus killing hundreds of terrorists, mostly from non-Syrian nationalities”), Al Baath Media, December 8, 2012, http://www.albaathmedia.sy/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=66655 (accessed August 10, 2013).

[70]سلسلة عملياتضد الإرهابيين في ريف دمشق وإيقاع أعداد منهمبين قتيل ومصابفي حلب وريفي إدلب وحمص, (“Series of operations against the terrorists in Damascus and a number of them dead and injured in a rural Aleppo and Idlib, Homs”), SANA state news agency, February 2, 2013, http://sana.sy/ara/336/2013/02/02/464988.htm (accessed August 13, 2013).

[71]إتمام الطوق على الغوطة الشرقيةوتنظيف المنطقة الممتدة من مطار دمشقإلى جنوب غرب الضمير من الإرهابيين,” (“Surrounding East Gouta and cleaning the area from terrorists from Damascus Airport to the south-west”), SANA state news agency, April 7, 2013, http://sana.sy/ara/336/2013/04/07/476048.htm (accessed August 5, 2013).

[72]Satellite imagery dates analyzed by Human Rights Watch: August 28, 2012, and May 23, 2013; Sources: EUSI, USG and Astrium; Copyright: DigitalGlobe 2014 and CNES 2014.

[73] Post to Coordinating Greater Damascus, Facebook, February 17, 2013, https://www.facebook.com/Damas.Biggest.Org/posts/482698551787268 (accessed January 9, 2014).

[74] Human Rights Watch phone interview, July 26, 2013.

[75] Ibid.

[76]For a detailed discussion on applicability of international humanitarian law to the conflict in Syria, see Human Rights Watch, Syria – “They Burned My Heart,” May 3, 2012, http://www.hrw.org/reports/2012/05/02/they-burned-my-heart-0. The International Committee of Red Cross (ICRC) concluded in July 2012 that the situation in Syria amounts to a non-international armed conflict. See: ICRC, “Syria: ICRC and Syrian Arab Red Crescent maintain aid effort amid increased fighting,” July 17, 2012, http://www.icrc.org/eng/resources/documents/update/2012/syria-update-2012-07-17.htm (accessed February 2, 2013). International human rights law, including the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR), also continue to be applicable during armed conflicts. These treaties guarantee all individuals their fundamental rights, many of which correspond to the protections afforded under international humanitarian law including the prohibition on torture, inhuman and degrading treatment, non-discrimination, and the right to a fair trial for those charged with criminal offenses. The ICECR addresses the rights to housing, highest attainable standard of health, and employment, among other rights.

[77]Hague Convention IV - Laws and Customs of War on Land: 18 October 1907 (Hague Regulations), 36 Stat. 2277, 1 Bevans 631, 205 Consol. T.S. 277, 3 Martens Nouveau Recueil (ser. 3) 461, entered into force Jan. 26, 1910; Protocol Additional to the Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, and relating to the Protection of Victims of International Armed Conflicts (Protocol I) of 8 June 1977, 1125 U.N.T.S. 3, entered into force December 7, 1978. The “means” of combat generally refer to the weapons used, while “methods” refer to the manner in which such weapons are used.

[78]See, e.g., Yoram Dinstein, The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004), p. 11 ( “Much of the Protocol may be regarded as declaratory of customary international law, or at least as non-controversial.”). See generally International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), Customary International Humanitarian Law (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2005).

[79]See the four Geneva Conventions of 1949, all of which entered into force on October 21, 1950.

[80]See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, rule 1, citing Protocol I, art. 48. According to ICRC, Commentary on the Additional Protocols, “The basic rule of protection and distinction is confirmed in this article. It is the foundation on which the codification of the laws and customs of war rests.” Ibid., p. 598.

[81]See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, rules 7 and 8, citing Protocol I, art. 52(2).

[82]See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, rule 10, citing Protocol I, art. 52(3).

[83]Under the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court (ICC Statute), it is a war crime to intentionally direct attacks against civilian objects, except during the time they are military objectives. ICC Statute, art. 8(2)(b)(ii).

[84]See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, rules 11 and 12, citing Protocol I, art. 51.

[85]See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, rule 14, citing Protocol I, arts. 51(5)(b) and art. 57.

[86]See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, rule 15, citing Protocol I, art. 57(1).

[87]See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, rule 17, citing Protocol I, art. 57(2)(a)(2).

[88]See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, rule 16, citing Protocol I, art. 57(2)(a).

[89]See ICRC, Commentary on the Additional Protocols, pp. 681-82.

[90]UK Ministry of Defence, The Manual of the Law of Armed Conflict (Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford: 2004), p. 55.

[91]Hague Regulations, art. 23(g).

[92]First Geneva Convention, art. 50; Second Geneva Convention, art. 51; Fourth Geneva Convention, art. 147.

[93]United States, General Orders No. 100 (Lieber Code), April 24, 1863, arts. 15-16 (“Military necessity does not admit … the wanton devastation of a district. … [I]n general, military necessity does not include any act of hostility which makes the return to peace unnecessarily difficult.”) See also ibid., art. 22 (“The principle has been more and more acknowledged that the unarmed citizen is to be spared in person, property, and honor as much as the exigencies of war will admit”); art. 38 (“Private property, unless forfeited by crimes or by offenses of the owner, can be seized only by way of military necessity”).

[94]Lieber Code, art. 14. The ICRC in its Commentary defines military necessity as “the necessity for measures which are essential to attain the goals of war, and which are lawful in accordance with the laws and customs of war.” ICRC, Commentary on the Additional Protocols, p. 393. The “four foundations” of military necessity, according to the ICRC, include “urgency, measures which are limited to the indispensable, the control (in space and time) of the force used, and the means which should not infringe on an unconditional prohibition.” Ibid., paragraph 1396.

[95]See, e.g., US Army Field Manual 27-10: The Law of Land Warfare, p. 4.

[96]ICRC, Commentary on the Additional Protocols, p. 396.

[97]US Army, Field Manual 27-10: The Law of Land Warfare (Department of the Army, July 1956), pp. 23-24.

[98]UK Ministry of Defence, The Manual of the Law of the Law of Armed Conflict, p. 88.

[99]See Dinstein, The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict, pp. 218-19 (citations omitted).

[100]Ibid., p. 90.

[101]ICRC, Commentary to the Additional Protocols, para. 2024.

[102]Bothe, Partsch and Solf, New Rules for Victims of Armed Conflicts, p. 326; see also Dinstein, The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict, pp. 87-92; and Michael N. Schmitt, Washington University Global Studies Law Review, “Effects-Based Operations and The Law Of Aerial Warfare,” vol. 5, no. 2, 2006, p. 278.

[103]Eritrea Ethiopia Claims Commission, Partial Award (Central Front), 43 ILM 1265 (2004), cited in Dinstein, The International

Law of Belligerent Occupation, p. 198.

[104]Dinstein, The Conduct of Hostilities under the Law of International Armed Conflict, pp. 90-91.

[105]Ibid., p. 91.

[106]Marco Sassoli and Lindsey Cameron, “The Protection of Civilian Objects – Current State of the Law and de lege ferenda,” in Natalino Ronzitti and Gabriella Venturini (eds), The Law of Air Warfare: Contemporary Issues (Utrecht: Eleven Int., 2006), p. 48.

[107] ICRC, Commentary to the Fourth Geneva Convention, p. 302.

[108]See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, rule 24, citing Protocol II, art. 13(1) (“civilians shall enjoy general protection against the dangers arising from military operations”).

[109]International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, G.A. res. 2200A (XXI), 21 U.N. GAOR Supp. (No. 16) at 49, U.N. Doc. A/6316 (1966), 993 U.N.T.S. 3, entered into force Jan. 3, 1976, art. 11.

[110] See generally UN Committee on Economic, Social and cultural Rights, “The right to adequate housing (art.11.1): forced evictions,” General comment No. 7, UN Doc. HRI/GEN/1/Rev.7 (1997).

[111] See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, rule 156, citing ICC Statute, art. 8(2)(e)(xii). This offense during international armed conflicts is referred to as “wanton destruction,” described in the Fourth Geneva Convention, art. 147, as the “extensive destruction and appropriation of property, not justified by military necessity and carried out unlawfully and wantonly.”

[112] See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, rule 156, citing Protocol II, art. 4.

[113]See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, p. 574, citing, e.g. International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), Delalic case, Case no. IT-96-21-T, Judgment, Trial Chamber II, Nov. 16, 1998.

[114]See ICTY, Kordic and Cerkez (Trial Chamber), February 26, 2001, paras. 346-47, excerpt available at http://www.hrw.org/reports/2004/ij/icty/3.htm.

[115]See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, pp. 558-63.

[116]ICC Statute, art. 8(2)(e)(xii).

[117]See ICTY, Kordic and Cerkez (Trial Chamber), February 26, 2001, paras. 346-347, excerpt available at http://www.hrw.org/reports/2004/ij/icty/3.htm.

[118]See ICTY, Blaskic (Trial Chamber), March 3, 2000, para. 183, excerpt available at http://www.hrw.org/reports/2004/ij/icty/3.htm.

[119]See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, pp. 607-11, citing the Geneva Conventions and the ICC Statute.

[120]See ICRC, Customary International Humanitarian Law, p. 551, citing the draft Articles on State Responsibility, art. 33.