June 26, 2009

Diamonds in the Rough

Human Rights Abuses in the Marange Diamond Fields of Zimbabwe

Map of Zimbabwe and the Marange Diamond Fields
Glossary of Acronyms
I. Summary
II. Recommendations
To the Government of Zimbabwe
To the Government of South Africa
To the Kimberley Process Certification Scheme
To States and Organizations that Are Major Consumers of Rough Diamonds, including the European Union, the United States, South Africa, the United Arab Emirates, and India
To the Southern African Development Community
To International Donors, including the United States, the United Kingdom, and Other European Union Members
III. Methodology
IV. Background
Diamonds in Marange-Unclear Legal Title to the Fields
Illegal Mining and Smuggling in the Marange Diamond Fields
Principal Buyers and Smuggling Routes
Laws Governing the Diamond Industry in Zimbabwe and Applicable International Standards
V. Human Rights Abuses, Corruption, and Extortion by the Police (November 2006 to October 2008)
Corruption in Marange
Police Smuggling Syndicates
Killings by Police
Arbitrary Arrests and Detentions
Sexual Abuse and Exploitation
VI. Human Rights Abuses by the Zimbabwe Defence Forces (October 2008 to June 2009)
Massacres in Chiadzwa (October 27 to November 16, 2008)
Torture and Beatings
VII. Continuing Abuses by the Military in Marange
Mining Syndicates and Forced Labor
Forced Child Labor
Theft and Harassment of the Local Community
Torture and Beatings
Planned Forced Removal of the Local Community
VIII. Beneficiaries of the Illicit Diamond Trade
Police "Reaction Teams"
Role of the Reserve Bank of Zimbabwe
Response to Allegations of Human Rights Abuse and Illegal Diamond Trading from the Government of Zimbabwe
IX. Response of the International Community
Kimberley Process Certification Scheme
X. Acknowledgements