November 26, 2008

Stuck in a Revolving Door

Iraqis and Other Asylum Seekers and Migrants at the Greece/Turkey Entrance to the European Union

Map of Greece and Turkey Border Region
I. Summary
II. Recommendations
III. Methodology and Scope
IV. Background
The Geography of Migration: the Greek Gateway to the EU
Increase in Apprehensions
Increase in Asylum Applications
V.  The Dublin System and the Failure of International Burden Sharing
Transfers to Greece under Dublin II
The EU's Failure to Relieve the Iraqi Refugee Burden in the Middle East
VI. Iraqi Refugees and Migrants
VII. Access to Greek Territory:  Apprehensions, Orders to Leave, Deportations, Summary Expulsions and Pushbacks
Orders to Leave
Official Deportations
Returns under the Greece-Turkey Readmission Agreement
Summary Forced Expulsions from the Evros Region
Greek Coast Guard Pushbacks
VIII. Turkey's Border-Enforcement Response to Greek Expulsions and Pushbacks
IX. Detention in Turkey
Edirne:  Intentionally Inhuman and Degrading Treatment
X.  Deportations from Turkey
Overland Deportations to Northern Iraq
Indefinite Detention to Pay for Own Removal
XI. Greece's Nonrefoulement Obligations
Nonrefoulement Under Refugee Law..
Principle of Nonrefoulement in Human Rights Law..
XII. Detention in Greece
The Evros Region
The Greek Islands
The Athens Area (Attica Prefecture)
XIII. Detention in Greece: Inhuman and Degrading Treatment
XIV. Seeking Access to Asylum in Greece
Seeking Asylum in Athens-Petrou Ralli
XV. The Asylum Procedure in Greece
Legal Representation
Accelerated Procedure
Grounds for Protection
The First-instance Interview..
Appeals of Negative Decisions101
"Tricks" to Knock Applicants Out of the Asylum Procedure102
XVI. Surviving in Greece106
Undocumented Iraqis106
Iraqi Red-Card Holders108
Recognized Iraqi Refugees Living in Greece110
Conditions Common to all Asylum Seekers and Migrants111
XVII. Dublin Returns114
The Shock of Return114
Access to Asylum upon Return115
Lack of Reception, Housing, Social Services for Dublin Returnees118
XVIII. Acknowledgements121