July 14, 2008

Why They Died

Civilian Casualties in Lebanon during the 2006 War

Map: Administrative Divisions of Lebanon
Map: Southern Lebanon
Map: Northern Lebanon
I. Executive Summary
Israeli Policies Contributing to the Civilian Death Toll
Hezbollah Conduct During the War
Summary of Methodology and Errors Corrected
II.Recommendations
III.Methodology
IV. Legal Standards Applicable to the Conflict
A. Applicable International Law..
B. Protections for Civilians and Civilian Objects
V. Background to the Israel-Hezbollah war
A. Hezbollah's "Operation Truthful Promise"
B. Israel's "Operation Change of Direction"
VI. Hezbollah Conduct during the War
A. Background: Hezbollah's Structure, Base of Support, and Military Secrecy
B. Hezbollah's Weapons Storage
C. Hezbollah's Rocket Firing Positions
D. Claims of Hezbollah "Human Shielding" Practices
E. Hezbollah Firing from Near UN Positions
F. Hezbollah Combatants in Civilian Clothes
VII. Israeli Conduct During the War Civilian Deaths
A. Israel's False Presumption of No Civilian Presence and Ineffective Warnings to Evacuate, With Resultant Indiscriminate Bombardment and Indiscriminate Targeting of All Visible Persons or Vehicles in Southern Lebanon or the Beka` Valley as "Hezbollah"
B. Attacks on Presumed Hezbollah Targets and Inadequate Precautions
VIII. Civilian Casualty Incidents Investigated by Human Rights Watch
A. Attacks on Civilian Homes
B. Attacks on Vehicles and Fleeing Civilians147
C. Civilian Casualties During Attacks on Infrastructure166
D. Deaths from Artillery Strikes170
E. Shooting Deaths by IDF Ground Forces172
Acknowledgements179
Appendix I180
List of Attacks Investigated180
Appendix II202
Names of Those Killed202
Appendix III225
Human Rights Watch Letter to Defense Minister Amir Peretz225
Appendix IV238
Government of Israel Response to Human Rights Watch Letter238