May 5, 2008

Targeting Blacks

Drug Law Enforcement and Race in the United States

Acknowledgments
I. Introduction
II. Recommendations
III. Background: The War on Drugs and the US Criminal Justice System   
Fig.1: Drug Abuse Violation Arrests
IV. Race and the Incarceration of Drug Offenders
Drug Offenses and Black Incarceration
Table 1: Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses as a Percentage of All Admissions, by Race and Gender, 2003  
Racial Composition of Drug Offender Admissions
Racial Disparities in Rates of Admission
Table 2: Number of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 2003
Fig.2: Racial Composition of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, 2003
Table 3: Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Gender and Race, 2003
Fig.3: Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 2003
Fig.4: Ratio of Black:White Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, 2003
Table 4: Ranking of States by Ratio of Black:White Prison Admission Rates for Drug Offenses, 2003  
Fig.5: Correlation of White and Black Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, 2003  
Race and Gender
Fig.6: Male Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 2003
Fig.7: Female Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 2003
Table 5: Ratio of Black:White Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses by Gender, 2003  
V. Changes between 1996 and 2003
Racial Disparities 1996-2003
Table 6: Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 1996 and 2003
Table 7: Ratio of Black:White Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, 1996 and 2003  
Table 8: Racial Composition of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, 1996 and 2003
Table 9: Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses as a Percentage of All Admissions, by Race, 1996 and 2003  
Race and Gender 1996-2003
Table 10: Male Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 1996 and 2003
Table 11: Female Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses, by Race, 1996 and 2003  
Table 12: Ratio of Black:White Rates of Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses by Gender, 1996 and 2003  
VI. Origins of Racial Disparities in Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses
Rates of Illegal Drug Activity
Drug Users
Fig.8: Lifetime Drug Use by Race, Ages 12 and Older
Drug Sellers
Rates of Arrest
Table 13: US Arrests for Drug Abuse Violations, 2006
From Arrest to Imprisonment
Case Study: New York
Table 14: New York Drug Arrests by Region and Race/Ethnicity: 2002
Fig 9: Black Drug Arrests, New York City and New York State
Table 15: Race and Ethnicity of New Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses In New York, 2006  
Case Study: Illinois
Case Study: Seattle
Case Study: A Focus on Counties
VII. Racial Injustice and Human Rights
VIII. Conclusion
IX. Methodology
Prison Admissions for Drug Offenses
Race and Prison Admissions
Rates of Admission
Total Figures
Limitations
External Validity
Reporting of the Cases
Duplication
Missing Data on Race