June 9, 2005

Reading between the "Red Lines"

The Repression of Academic Freedom in Egyptian Universities

I. Summary
II. Recommendations
III. Academic Freedom: Definition and Legal Protections
Right to Education
Rights Belonging to Members of the Academic Community
Freedom of Opinion
Freedom of Expression
Freedom of Association
Freedom of Assembly
Rights Attached to the Institution: University Autonomy
Protection from State and Non-State Actors
Other Human Rights Protections
Egyptian Law..
IV. Background
Rise of the National Universities
The American University in Cairo (AUC)
Influence of Egyptian Universities
The History of Constraints on Academic Freedom in Egypt
Egyptian Universities Today
V. Government Repression
Instruments of Repression
Police Presence
Political Appointments
Laws and Regulations
Academic Freedom Violations in the Classroom...
Censorship of Course and Library Books: AUC Case Study
Censorship of the Arts
Class Discussion
Conclusion and Recommendations
Arbitrary Interference with Academic Research
Permit Process
Trial and Imprisonment: Saadeddin Ibrahim Case Study
Conclusion and Recommendations
Controls on Student Activities
Student Groups and Demands
Student Unions
Student Clubs, or Usar
Other Forms of Student Expression
Conclusion and Recommendations
Far-Reaching Limits on Campus Demonstrations
Violence on Campus: Alexandria University 2002
International Politics: Cairo University and AUC 2003
University Issues: `Ain Shams University 1999
Conclusion and Recommendations
Government Victimization of Islamist Academics
Harassment and Detention
Academic Side Effects
Conclusion and Recommendations
VI. Non-State Attacks on Academic Freedom: The Islamist Factor
Rise of Islamist Attacks
Student Activities and Campus Protests
Conclusion and Recommendations
VII. Self-Censorship
Course Books
Class Discussion
Student Activities and Campus Demonstrations
Conclusion and Recommendations
VIII. Institutional Restrictions and Proposed Reforms
Violations of University Autonomy: Professors and Promotions
Lack of Choice: Student Apathy and Frustration
Budgetary Burdens
Proposed Reforms
The Ministry of Higher Education's "Strategic Plan"
UNDP Reports
IX. Conclusion101