September 30, 2004

STRUGGLING TO SURVIVE:

BARRIERS TO JUSTICE FOR RAPE VICTIMS IN RWANDA

I.SUMMARY..
II.RECOMMENDATIONS
III.BACKGROUND...
Sexual Violence during the 1994 Genocide
Rwandan Women in the Post-Genocide Period
IV.BARRIERS TO JUSTICE FOR SEXUAL VIOLENCE CRIMES
Genocide Prosecutions in the Rwandan Legal System...
General Context
Legislation Governing Genocide Trials and Gacaca
Cases of Sexual Violence in Genocide Trials and Gacaca Proceedings
Obstacles to Reporting Sexual Violence
Victims' Concerns Regarding Lack of Evidence
Stigmatization, Retraumatization, and Inadequate Procedural Protections for Witnesses
Post-1994 Rape Victims: Persistent Stigma and a Cycle of Violence
Obstacles to Investigation and Prosecution of Sexual Violence
Lack of Testimonial and Medicolegal Evidence
Inconsistent Verdicts Due to Lack of Definition of Rape or Sexual Torture under the Law
Failure of Authorities to File Rape Charges Pursuant to Reports of Rape
Health Care and Other Assistance for Victims of Sexual Violence
V.GOVERNMENT RESPONSE..
Statutory Law..
Training and Resources for Effective Investigation, Prosecution, and Protection
Medicolegal Training
Progress in Police Training
Training of Prosecutors and Judges
Counseling and Legal Education Services for Victims
Number of Women Serving as Police, Prosecutors, and Judges
Reform of the Gacaca System...
VI. INTERNATIONAL LEGAL STANDARDS
Violence against Women
Right to Reparations
VII. CONCLUSION...
ACKNOWLEDGMENTS