July 29, 2003

Glossary

Afghani:The currency of Afghanistan.The afghani traded at various levels in early 2003:one U.S. dollar bought between 41 and 51 afghanis.

Amniat:"Security," used to refer to the Afghan intelligence service, Amniat-e Mille ("National Security").

Burqa and Chadori:Terms used interchangeably in many parts of Afghanistan to describe a head-to-toe garment worn by women that completely covers the body and face, allowing vision through a mesh screen.

Dari:Afghan Persian, one of Afghanistan's main languages.

DDR:Disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration.

Firqa:A mid-sized military base, smaller than a qol-e urdu but larger than a ghund (see below).

Ghund:A type of military base, smaller than a firqa (see above).

Hazara:An ethnicity in Afghanistan.Afghanistan's other main ethnic groups include Pashtuns, Tajiks, Uzbeks, and Nuristanis.

Hijab:Generally, dress for women that conforms to Islamic standards, varying among countries and cultures; usually includes covering the hair and obscuring the shape of the body.

ISAF:International Security Assistance Force, the international peacekeeping force currently stationed in Kabul.

Loya Jirga:Pashto phrase meaning "grand council." A loya jirga is a political meeting usually used to choose new kings, adopt constitutions, or decide important political matters and disputes.

Mahram:A close male relative (husband, brother, father, or son) who is allowed to see a woman without full hijab.

Mujahidin:"Those who engage in jihad." As used in this report, this refers to the forces that fought successive Soviet-backed regimes, although many former mujahidin parties continue to use it with reference to themselves.

Pashto:The primary language spoken by many Pashtuns.

Pashtun: The largest ethnicity in Afghanistan and a plurality of the population (Pashtuns also reside in Pakistan); historically Afghanistan's main leaders have been Pashtun.

PRTs:Provincial Reconstruction Teams, mixed groups of troops and civilians formed by the United States in late 2002 and 2003 being deployed in a few particularly unstable regions.

Shura:"Council."The shuras mentioned in this report include both governmental and nongovernmental bodies.

Qol-e Urdu:A regional military base and the largest type of base in Afghanistan.