June 20, 2002

The War Within the War

Sexual Violence Against Women and Girls in Eastern Congo

SUMMARY
RECOMMENDATIONS..
To the Government of Rwanda and the Rassemblement Congolais pour la Démocratie (RCD)
To the Mai-Mai and predominantly Hutu armed groups operating in eastern Congo
To the Government of the Democratic Republic of Congo
To the United Nations
To Donor Governments
METHODOLOGY
Context
SEXUAL VIOLENCE AS A WEAPON OF WAR..
Identifying Perpetrators
Sexual Violence in South Kivu
Sexual Violence in North Kivu
Extraordinary Brutality
Children and the Elderly
Forced Labor
THE AFTERMATH OF RAPE AND OTHER FORMS OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE
Stigmatization of Victims
Medical Consequences and HIV/AIDS..
INDIVIDUAL AND COMMUNITY RESPONSES..
Strategies of Protection
Response by Civil Society
THE RESPONSE OF THE AUTHORITIES..
Lack of Protection
Justice and Impunity
LEGAL PROTECTION AGAINST SEXUAL VIOLENCE
Congolese Law..
International Law..
RESPONSE OF THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY
The United States
The European Union
The United Nations
International Action on HIV/AIDS..
The World Bank
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS..
APPENDIX I: Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court- Articles Relating to Jurisdiction  
APPENDIX II: The Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women