February 26, 2009

V. Impact of the Ban on Teachers and Civil Servants

When the new laws came into effect, teachers, some with many years of employment, were threatened with disciplinary action if they continued to wear the headscarf, and have been subject to disciplinary action in North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg. In at least two cases in North Rhine-Westphalia teachers (without civil servant status) were dismissed from their position.

In Berlin and Hesse, whose laws also cover civil servants other than teachers, there have been a handful of disputes involving "trainee lawyers" wearing the headscarf, and in Berlin about judicial clerks.[150]

Although those who have civil servant status have greater protection, they may be removed from their teaching position and may lose their civil servant status if they continue to wear the headscarf and fail with any legal case.

Muslim women have had difficulties obtaining places as trainee teachers, and Muslim trainee teachers have been denied subsequent employment as teachers after successful completion of their education if they do not abide by the restriction.

These regulations are not abstract concerns. They have a profound effect on human lives. Women who spoke to Human Rights Watch described how after sometimes years or decades working as teachers without disputes or disciplinary problems, their employment and qualifications were suddenly in question.

The broad scope of the bans, and debates surrounding them, fuel a perception among Muslim women that they are suspect in the eyes of German authorities. Maryam (not her real name), an elementary school teacher in North Rhine-Westphalia who converted to Islam, had worn a headscarf in school for decades. She explained to Human Rights Watch, "One has the feeling 'we don't want you'… Where should I go? I belong here.… I would never have thought that would be possible."[151] Elma (not her real name), a secondary school teacher who trained in Baden-Württemberg, said she was the only trainee teacher the supervisory school authority wanted to meet and get to know.[152] Other women expressed similar concerns.[153]

Women teachers who wear a headscarf are invariably asked to explain why they do so, and their independence and views on women's equality are questioned. Articulating her frustration at the assumptions she saw as underpinning the ban, Fahimah, an elementary school teacher in Essen (North Rhine-Westphalia), told Human Rights Watch, "Those who made these laws don't know us." She continued:
They should ask our colleagues, directors, school inspectors, the parents, the pupils what kind of persons we are. All of them have experienced me and know me so well, that they can attest for sure that I am not oppressed and that I do not wear the scarf because of oppression… [The authorities] cannot just simply allege this; for that they would have to get to know us to know if we are oppressed women who manifest this through the headscarf.… One cannot just simply assert this like this. One cannot regard the headscarf as a symbol for that."

Fahimah added,

There are certainly also persons who neither wear a headscarf nor are Muslim and are oppressed and where do you see it in their cases then? I don't understand how one can want to base this on a cloth.'[154]

Sara (not her real name), a teacher at a North Rhine-Westphalia secondary school echoed these frustrations:

I can imagine that one can come to this conclusion from the representation of Muslim women in the media. So what? I am not like this.… Many women with headscarves are not like this and one cannot completely condemn a religion because of some being like this.… I am an example for integration … going out, striving for a job, finished my studies, did not marry young and only after completion of my university education …  I chose my husband freely, not under compulsion, I knew him long before, like it all should be. I was also not forced to wear the headscarf-I am practically a model of what they look for. They have now a promotional program for migrant women to study to become a teacher. Hello? Here I am, take me! It is very sad to be confronted with being told I am of a type that I also only know from the media. I don't recognize the person they see me to be.[155]

Women interviewed by Human Rights Watch, even many who had lived in Germany for decades or even their entire lives, or are German-born converts, expressed feelings of alienation and exclusion. One group of women interviewed by Human Rights Watch noted that what was important to them had been declared to be dangerous.[156] A Muslim convert elementary teacher from North Rhine-Westphalia described hearing the news about the ban: "I suddenly felt like a stranger in Germany…I will never forget that."

Martina, a school teacher in Frankfurt, who is trying to apply for teaching positions in private schools, told Human Rights Watch,

I wear it because I deem it a religious duty for myself. I needed 10 years to decide [to wear] the headscarf. I will not go and tell a 15-year-old pupil to wear it. If I would like to influence pupils I could do that also without a headscarf-it would make more sense. … Through the law they impute to me a sort of constant Islamic work, which I strongly reject. When I teach German, I teach German.… Neutrality should have to apply to everybody.[157]

Other women similarly made the point that the ban would not effectively target possible indoctrination. As one respondent in a group interview put it, "The headscarf is overestimated. One does not need a headscarf to manipulate and there are other mechanisms to act against [indoctrination]"[158]

An elementary school teacher in North Rhine-Westphalia expressed her incomprehension at why her skills and ability to reach out to migrant pupils and parents were not valued:

The pupils and the parents did not have a problem with it [the headscarf] … The director said she would get even more problems with the Muslims than she already has because of me, but on the contrary I could have helped her and also speak with the Muslim parents, but she did not understand that.[159]

Women have told Human Rights Watch that they feel "reduced to the headscarf"[160]-by the regulations and debates surrounding them. One told us, "You become the 'headscarf woman'"[161] Another remarked, "Before the headscarf law, I was just simply wearing the headscarf. Since there is the headscarf law and one is put so much in the centre of attention I am wearing my headscarf much more consciously.… It feels like being on show. Everyone looks at you: colleagues, who also follow it in the press … the situation is disgusting."[162] A third woman said, "The headscarf was just the 'dot on the i' for me, not so important, never an issue".[163]

According to the secondary school teacher Sara, demands to take off the headscarf gave her an impossible decision:

To have to actually imagine coming to school, having to take of the headscarf and go to the staff room for the first time. When I just think of it now, it nauseates me. One feels humiliated. It is something else if I don't want to wear the headscarf anymore and go like this to school, but when it happens under compulsion. … also in front of the pupils … I always told them you have to think what you stand for, and then you stand for it, unless you are convinced by something else. … and then I go myself and take my headscarf off? …I am no role model then.[164]

Other women told Human Rights Watch how the ban led them to make unwanted decisions about wearing substitutes for the headscarf, going to another state or leaving Germany, or prolonging maternity leave and having to investigate new careers after years of studying and working at developing their teaching skills.

The elementary school teacher in North Rhine-Westphalia mentioned above, described to Human Rights Watch the difficulties she experienced even after deciding to wear a hat as a substitute:

The school administration, the director, suggested I take parental leave [as I was entitled to] to reflect on what to do now. I liked them and they liked me a lot…  I have been wearing the headscarf since I was 16 years old, including during years as a trainee. Ok no scarf, so I'll wear a hat and I thought that way we don't have this whole symbol anymore and everybody profits from it, but that wasn't allowed either.… I had talked beforehand to the school inspector about wearing the hat and he told me, "I don't care what you wear on your head, [what is] important is that you are a good teacher. Well then go with the hat, let's try."…It was my idea.… At the time, although there was already the headscarf law, we did not know that the hat is also not allowed. This came only later when the cases with hats occurred. Only then it was said that a hat is also not allowed.… My director had to report that I am wearing it. I don't blame her … she did not want to go against the law.[165]

To avoid being dismissed, this teacher finally took up the suggestion of taking parental leave. At the time she met with Human Rights Watch, she was contemplating moving to a state where she could teach without giving up her headscarf: "I am thinking of going to Rhineland-Palatinate … but my children's father [from whom she is divorced] is here … [I]t's difficult for the children … but I also have to think how to provide for them, also later when they want to study.… But if the law also comes in Rhineland-Palatine then I am back to the start again.… My whole family is here, therefore it would be difficult for me to leave. I need this contact with family and friends."[166]

Emilie (not her real name), an elementary school teacher in North Rhine-Westphalia who converted to Islam explained the financial difficulties she faced as a result of the ban, having decided to extend maternity leave and then take extended parental leave to avoid coming into conflict with the new law, even though her husband was unemployed and they needed her income from teaching:

Since my husband was also looking for a job, we will go now for some time abroad [to Morocco]. I am leaving with mixed feelings, since even a part-time job would have enabled a frugal life here. Now I am waiting for other Muslim women to fight for the right of free practice of religion, and hope it will be successful."[167]

One Muslim convert trainee teacher, told by an official of the Bavarian State Ministry of Education she would not be allowed to do her practical years wearing a headscarf, moved to Vienna (Austria) to work as an assistant at an Islamic primary school.[168]

Those who have decided to take off their headscarf in order to keep their jobs or to wear a wig that does not cover the ears or neck described the upset and unease this caused them. In the words of one teacher from southern Germany:

I started to wear the headscarf [when I was] 15. … There are no pictures with me and the wig, I avoid that. I feel uncomfortable. I don't like to go out in public with it on: I do excursions with my pupils because it is important for the children, but I don't like to take the tram with it. I also avoid further training outside the school and try to do it in our school. No, I don't feel comfortable.… Otherwise I would have been outside [wearing it]. It was basically the question: Do I give up on all my years of studies and complete education or do I find a loophole to still work?… To leave my home town would have been too much of a sacrifice.[169]

Rabia, a special education teacher in Dortmund, who converted to Islam and has been wearing a headscarf throughout her education and work as a teacher (since 1995 at the same school) has worn a broad hairband since the ban was introduced in 2006 in North Rhine-Westphalia. She first tried to wear a scarf, but would not have been allowed into class like that.

I consulted with my conscience, and conferred with my husband how I would bear it … and decided to take the headscarf off. I am wearing the hair band in defiance, to have something. It does not look good and is uncomfortable. I also looked at wigs before, which are quite expensive. "Like real" the saleswoman said at the end, and I thought, "I might just as well show my own hair." To renounce the headscarf is very difficult. On the first day I "disguised" myself in the school toilet. When a colleague spoke to me, I broke down in tears."[170]

Rabia added, "My son asked me, 'What is more important-Allah or work'? I answered him that it is complicated, when he gets older…"[171]

Although trainee teachers are supposed to be exempt from bans, following the June 2006 ruling of the Federal Administrative Court, in practice they have faced difficulties accessing training places or traineeships, although they ultimately found a place.[172] Trainee judges have told Human Rights Watch about incidents of access to some training roles being limited, such as sitting next to the judge or representing the prosecution.[173] In the states with bans on the headscarf for teachers, no trainee teacher who wears the headscarf has found employment in a public school since the bans were introduced.

Court cases and accompanying media attention also put considerable pressure on women affected by the headscarf ban, as well as on their schools and families.[174] This is why some avoid legal action. According to an elementary teacher in North Rhine- Westphalia: "I would never go to court, I do not have the strength and nerves to deal with that. Even if maybe it would help others if many of us would go to court, I just can't. That is why I never considered it."[175]

Sara, who moved after her home state's ban to North Rhine-Westphalia, only to be confronted with the same ban there, and whose court case in North Rhine-Westphalia was put on hold after she became pregnant, talked about the pressure she feels under:

When I come back to work, I will continue the court case to be able to stay in my job with the headscarf, which I hope will then not be necessary anymore … This is what I say now … I don't know how it be will be when the time for a decision is upon me … a lot of things go through your head then … This puts an extreme pressure on you and your family. My husband backs me whatever my decision, but it is still difficult. I was never someone who is politically or legally versed.[176]

The elementary teacher Emilie from North Rhine-Westphalia whose financial problems and decision to leave temporarily for Morocco are mentioned above, explained her decision not to go back to work rather than fight the ban:

I have four children and was on maternity leave when the headscarf ban began on June 13, 2006 ... In that year I had thought I would go back to work less then part-time but that [idea] moved to the back burner because of the ban.  I didn't have the strength to fight on both levels:  To manage with four children, one of whom has serious attention deficit problems...and I thought, I cannot also get into conflict with the law.  I saw what other colleagues faced [when they challenged the law]: the press comes to the school, [they] receive inquiries and also sometimes hostility.[177]

At a further education center developed and run by and for Muslim women in North Rhine-Westphalia, women we met expressed their belief that their decision to wear the headscarf means that they would have had no chance to get work in education. They also reported problems in the state faced by women who wear the headscarf finding training places with lawyers[178]

The headscarf ban debate appears to have had a negative effect on the employment as lay judges of women who wear the headscarf (lay judges being ordinary citizens without legal training who are elected to sit as judges).[179] Although the state ban does not apply directly to lay judges, there have been several cases in North Rhine-Westphalia[180] in 2006 (and one request in Berlin in 2004[181]) where lay judges who wear the headscarf have been ordered by the chairing judge to remove their headscarves during the trial, and excluded from sitting as a judge in the court if they refused to do so.[182]

There have been cases in Berlin,[183] Hesse,[184] Lower Saxony,[185] and North Rhine- Westphalia[186] where trainee lawyers wearing the headscarf have had their access to court for training purposes restricted.  They were released from parts of the education and training as they were not allowed to perform as the representative of the prosecution in session (Sitzungsvertretungen) or sit at the judge's bench.

Academics and representatives of women's groups and Muslim groups (including Muslim women's groups) interviewed by Human Rights Watch suggested that state headscarf bans and debates in Germany have aggravated discrimination against women who wear the headscarf. Research by the Berlin state equality office indicates the ban in Berlin has an effect for women who wear the headscarf in other employment sectors not covered by the law and on the headscarf debate more broadly. [187] The spokesperson for legal affairs of the SPD-faction in the Berlin House of Representatives acknowledged the danger of discrimination is real, but noted that restrictions in the private sector based on the headscarf would be unlawful.[188]

Some of the women affected and organizations interviewed argued that the law has a negative impact on social cohesion and that, instead of prohibiting religious symbols, the school system should teach the peaceful cohabitation of communities and universal values.[189]

Muslim groups, women's groups and some of the women interviewed argue that a headscarf ban hinders the integration of Muslims in Germany because it dictates to them in a discriminatory paternalistic way how to behave and dress.[190] As one interviewee put in, "I was well on my way to reducing prejudices, but they did not let me."[191] They argue that the measures foster alienation and dependency by hindering independent means of income, and contribute to a deterioration in the social positions of the women affected instead of empowering them.[192] In the words of one woman (echoed by another):  "as long as we were cleaning in schools, nobody had a problem with the headscarf."[193]

[150] It cannot be excluded that there have been other cases solved by mutual agreement and that therefore have not become known.

[151] Human Rights Watch interview with "Maryam," converted elementary teacher in North-Rhine Westphalia, June 13, 2008.

[152] Human Rights Watch interview with "Elma," secondary school teacher in Rhineland-Palatinate, Karlsruhe, September 14, 2008.

[153] Human Rights Watch group interview with four women wearing the headscarf of diverse professional background at a centre and association for further education and encounter of Muslim women (Fortbildungs- und Begegnungszentrum muslimischer Frauen e.V., BFmF) in Cologne, April 11, 2008.

[154]Human Rights Watch Interview with Fahimah Ulfat-Arjumand, a 33 years old elementary teacher (civil servant "on probation") of Afghan origin, on parental leave having previously taught Mathematics, German, art, and sports, Essen, June 12, 2008. 

[155] Human Rights Watch interview with "Sara," a secondary school teacher, June 12, 2008. The paradox simultaneous demand for more teachers with a minority background was also pointed out in Human Rights Watch interview with a special education teacher with civil servant status Rabia (Renate) Karaoglan, Dortmund, Ju ly 28, 2008.

[156] Human Rights Watch group interview with four women wearing the headscarf of diverse professional background at a centre and association for further education and encounter of Muslim women (Fortbildungs- und Begegnungszentrum muslimischer Frauen e.V., BFmF) in Cologne, April 11, 2008.

[157] Human Rights Watch interview with Martina (Mamak) Makowski-Johari, July 30, 2008, Frankfurt, primary school teacher who completed her study and is on maternity leave because she has had a baby.

[158] Human Rights Watch group interview with four headscarf-wearing women of diverse professional background at a centre and association for further education and encounter of Muslim women (Fortbildungs- und Begegnungszentrum muslimischer Frauen e.V., BFmF) in Cologne, April 11, 2008. Human Rights Watch interview with Rania (not her real name), elementary teacher in North-Rhine Westphalia, Cologne, July 29, 2008, who is currently on prolonged parental leave because of the ban. Human Rights Watch phone interview with "Aida," trainee teacher, Hamburg, October 27, 2008.

[159] Human Rights Watch Interview with an elementary teacher, North-Rhine Westphalia, June 2008.

[160] Human Rights Watch interview with Rabia (Renate) Karaoglan, Dortmund, July 28, 2008.

[161] Human Rights Watch group interviews with four headscarf-wearing  women of diverse professional backgrounds at a centre and association for  further education and encounter of Muslim women (Fortbildungs- und Begegnungszentrum muslimischer Frauen e.V., BFmF) , Cologne, April 11, 2008.

[162] Human Rights Watch interview with "Sara," a secondary school teacher on June 12, 2008.

[163] Human Rights Watch interview with "Rania," elementary teacher in North-Rhine Westphalia, Cologne, July 29, 2008.

[164] Human Rights Watch interview with "Sara," a secondary school teacher, June 12, 2008.

[165] Human Rights Watch Interview with an elementary teacher in North-Rhine Westphalia in June 2008.

[166] Human Rights Watch Interview with an elementary teacher in North-Rhine Westphalia in June 2008.

[167] Human Rights Watch email correspondence with "Emilie," converted elementary school teacher with civil servant status on maternity leave from North-Rhine Westphalia on May 26, 2008. She studied German, mathematics and art, but was also used for other subjects when necessary including sports.

[168] Human Rights Watch interview with Elisabeth (not her real name), who had done special studies for three years to become a "supporting teacher" on June 4, 2008 in Bavaria.

[169] Human Rights Watch interview with teacher in South Germany.

[170] Human Rights Watch interview with special education teacher with civil servant status Rabia (Renate) Karaoglan, Dortmund, July 28, 2008.

[171] Human Rights Watch interview with special education teacher with civil servant status Rabia (Renate) Karaoglan, Dortmund, July 28, 2008.

[172] Human Rights Watch interview with Nuray (not her real name), student teacher, Berlin, September 12, 2008. Human Rights Watch phone interview with "Aida," trainee teacher in Hamburg, October 27, 2008.

[173] Human Rights Watch phone interview with Menekse Citak, trainee judge at the state court in Bielefeld, October 26, 2008. Human Rights Watch phone interview with trainee judge in Berlin, October 28, 2008.  Human Rights Watch phone interview with trainee judge Zahra Oubensalh in Hannover, November 1, 2008. Human Rights Watch phone interview with Shahla [pseudonym] trainee judge in Bielefeld, November 3, 2008.

[174] Human Rights Watch interview with Maryam Brigitte Weiss, spokeswomen of the community of interest ISGG (Initiative for self-determination, belief and society), women's representative and vice-chairman of the Central Council of Muslims, Cologne, April 12, 2008.

[175] Human Rights Watch Interview with an elementary teacher, North-Rhine Westphalia, June 2008. Similar reasons were mentioned in Rights Watch interview with Rabia (Renate) Karaoglan, Dortmund, July 28, 2008, who also mentioned that only with the Ludin case she and others attracted attention, before they "had been in the system."

[176] Human Rights Watch interview with Sara [pseudonym], a secondary school teacher, June 12, 2008.

[177] Human Rights Watch interview with Emilie [pseudonym], elementary school teacher, Aachen, June 13, 2008.

[178] Human Rights Watch group interview with four headscarf-wearing women of diverse professional background at a centre and association for further education and encounter of Muslim women (Fortbildungs- und Begegnungszentrum muslimischer Frauen e.V., BFmF) in Cologne, April 11, 2008. Human Rights Watch interview with Maryam Brigitte Weiss, secondary school teacher wearing headscarf in North-Rhine Westphalia and "Grace Kelly style" lawsuit, spokeswomen of the community of interest ISGG (Initiative for self-determination, belief and society), women's representative and vice-chairman of the Central Council of Muslims, Cologne, April 12, 2008.

[179] The position of lay judge is honorary. They are required to be neutral and impartial and enjoy the same independence as professional judges.

[180]In January 2006, a judge of the district court Bielefeld refused a lay judge because of her headscarf. As the lay judge consequently left the court room, no formal court decision was issued. The regional court Bielefeld rejected however to also generally strike her off the list of lay judges. In Dortmund, the chair judge of the regional court (Landgericht) excluded in November 2006 a lay judge from the trial because she refused to take off her headscarf during the hearing and replaced her by a substitute.

[181] In the Berlin case in 2004, the defendant applied for the exclusion because of impartiality but the request was rejected by the court, http://www.welt.de/print-welt/article295150/Erstmals_Schoeffin_mit_Kopftuch_in_einem_Berliner_Gericht.html (accessed January 2, 2008).

[182] Regional Court Bielefeld, decision from March 16, 2006, Az. 3221 b EH 68, Neue Juristische Wochenschrift (NJW)  2007, 3014; Regional Court Dortmund, decision of November 7, 2006, Az. 14 (III) Gen Str. K, 14 (VIII) Gen.Str.K., Neue Juristische Wochenschrift (NJW) 2007, 3013; Regional Court  Dortmund, decision of February 12, 2007, Az. 14 Gen Str K 12/06.

[183] See Sigrid Kneist, "Religion clash: Muslim trainee is not allowed into the court room with headscarf" (Religionsstreit: Muslimische Referendarin darf nicht mit Kopftuch in den Gerichtssaal), Der Tagesspiegel, October 7, 2001, http://www.tagesspiegel.de/berlin/;art270,1972352 (accessed January 2, 2008).

[184] The justice minister of Hesse decided in July 2007, after complaints from a lawyers' association, that a trainee lawyer at the district court in Offenbach because of her headscarf could attend the hearings not on the bench but only in the auditorium, would not be allowed to take evidence nor could she perform as the representative of the prosecution in session, which is also part of the education. See "Fail because of headscarf" (Ungenügend wegen Kopftuch), Der Spiegel 27/2007, July 2, 2007, p. 18, http://wissen.spiegel.de/wissen/image/show.html?did=52109088&aref=image036/2007/06/30/ROSP200702700180018.PDF&thumb=false (accessed January 2, 2008).

[185] In 2003 a trainee lawyer at the prosecution in Osnabrück in the district of the High State Court of Oldenburg had given a written release declaration to renounce wearing a headscarf on duty. See "Headscarf is taboo in Lower Saxony's justice" (Kopftuch ist in Niedersachsens Justiz tabu), Welt Online, November 14, 2003, http://www.welt.de/print-welt/article273006/Kopftuch_ist_in_Niedersachsens_Justiz_tabu.html (accessed January 2, 2008).

[186] According to a May 2004 non-binding recommendation of the Cologne council of judges, Muslim trainee lawyers with headscarves should sit separated from the judges amongst the witnesses and spectators, to prevent being "identified with the court." It includes a clear instruction that each judge is responsible for deciding individually whether trainees are permitted to wear headscarves during court proceedings. See European Forum for Migration Studies (EFMS) Migration report, May 2004 at http://www.efms.uni-bamberg.de/dmai04_e.htm (accessed January 2, 2008. There was a 1998 case involving a trainee lawyer in Cologne who lost her lawsuit in the Administrative Court in Cologne against her release from the training of tasks representing the prosecutor during the hearing. Another conflict case in 2000 at the district court in Düsseldorf concerned an apprentice judicial clerk, who was prohibited to sit next to the judge's desk while taking the minutes wearing her headscarf. A compromise was agreed, that she was only allowed to attend the hearings sitting in the auditorium. See Sigrid Kneist, "religion clash: Muslim trainee is not allowed into the court room with headscarf" (Religionsstreit: Muslimische Referendarin darf nicht mit Kopftuch in den Gerichtssaal), Der Tagesspiegel, October 7, 2001, http://www.tagesspiegel.de/berlin/;art270,1972352 (accessed January 2, 2008).

[187] "With headscarf left out?" (Mit Kopftuch außen vor?), Leaflet of the equality office of Berlin on discrimination of women with headscarves, also outside the public service in 2008. 

[188] At a panel discussion in June 2008, Dr. Fritz Felgentreu, member of the Berlin House of Representatives; conference proceedings, "Integration between 'Leitkultur' and laicism – five years after the headscarf judgment of the Federal Constitutional Court", Conference of the VEIL project in Berlin in cooperation with the Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung, June 5-6, 2008, http://131.130.1.78/veil/Home3/download.php?4882fd80acb79db3d38c9378a646bbb9 (accessed December 30, 2008).

[189] Human Rights Watch interview with Maryam Brigitte Weiss, Cologne, April 12, 2008. Human Rights Watch interview with Rania [pseudonym], Cologne, July 29, 2008. Human Rights Watch phone interview with "Aida," trainee teacher, Hamburg, October 27, 2008. Human Rights Watch interview with Özlem Nas, spokeswoman from the Muslim women organization in North Germany, Hamburg, September 16, 2008.

[190] Human Rights Watch group interviews with four women wearing the headscarf of diverse professional background at a centre and association for  further education and encounter of Muslim women (Fortbildungs- und Begegnungszentrum muslimischer Frauen e.V., BFmF) in Cologne, April 11, 2008. Human Rights Watch interview with Rabia (Renate) Karaoglan, Dortmund, July 28, 2008.

[191] Human Rights Watch interview with special education teacher with civil servant status Rabia (Renate) Karaoglan, Dortmund, July 28, 2008.

[192] Human Rights Watch group interviews with four women wearing the headscarf of diverse professional background at a centre and association for  further education and encounter of Muslim women (Fortbildungs- und Begegnungszentrum muslimischer Frauen e.V., BFmF) in Cologne, April 11, 2008.

[193] Human Rights Watch group interviews with four women wearing the headscarf of diverse professional background at a centre and association for further education and encounter of Muslim women (Fortbildungs- und Begegnungszentrum muslimischer Frauen e.V., BFmF) in Cologne, April 11, 2008, of which one added: In the schools most cleaning ladies wear headscarves and then you show the girls that with headscarf they only let you take cleaning jobs."