Simone Troller, researcher in the Children’s Rights Division of Human Rights Watch, wrote this report based on her research and that of Michael Bochenek, deputy director of the Children’s Rights Division. Former intern Rocío Aznar Daban provided additional research assistance.

The report was edited by Michael Bochenek and Lois Whitman, director of the Children’s Rights Division; Judith Sunderland, researcher in the Europe and Central Asia Division; Bill Frelick, director of the Refugee Policy Program; Gerry Simpson, researcher and advocate in the Refugee Policy Program; Aisling Reidy, senior legal advisor; and Ian Gorvin, consultant to the Program Office of Human Rights Watch. Additional input was provided by Jo Becker, advocacy director in the Children’s Rights Division; Veronika Szente Goldston, advocacy director in the Europe and Central Asia Division; and Zama Coursen-Neff, acting deputy director of the Children’s Rights Division.

Production assistance was provided by Kennji Kizuka, associate in the Children’s Rights Division; Anna Lopriore, creative manager; Andrea Holley, publications director; Grace Choi, publications specialist; and Fitzroy Hepkins, mail manager. The report was translated into Spanish by Juan Luis Guillén and vetted by Rocío Aznar Daban.

We wish to thank the many children who agreed to speak to us and shared their experiences. We also appreciate the support, expertise, and advice of the following individuals: Almudena Escorial, Antonio Pedreira Hernández, Belén Anguita Arjona, Diego Lorente, Daniel Senovilla Hernández, Elena Arce, Jesús Trujillo, Kimi Aoki, Margarita de la Rasilla, Mercedes Jiménez, Paloma Hermoso, Raphaele Baze, Rocío Cuellar, and Virginia Álvarez.

Finally, we acknowledge with appreciation the support of the Countess Moira Charitable Foundation, the Oak Foundation, the Independence Foundation, and anonymous donors.