Human Rights Watch would like to express our gratitude to the many women, doctors, and public officials who agreed to speak with us about this painful and difficult topic.

We would also like to thank the staff of Ipas’s Central America office in Nicaragua who provided invaluable support for the research undertaken for this report and without whom the research would not have been successful or even possible.

This report was written by Marianne Møllmann, advocacy director of the Women’s Rights Division, based on research carried out by her and Angela Heimburger, researcher of the Women’s Rights Division. Nicole Bucheri, Ruchi Lohani, and Emily Newman, interns of the Women’s Rights Division, provided critical research and drafting support. It was edited by Janet Walsh, acting executive director of the Women’s Rights Division, and Daniel Wilkinson, deputy director of the Americas Division; and was reviewed by Aisling Reidy, senior legal adviser, and Ian Gorvin, consultant to the Program Office of Human Rights Watch.