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AIDS:  The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is a fatal disease caused by HIV, human immunodeficiency virus. Currently, antiretroviral drugs slow down replication of the virus and can greatly enhance quality of life, but they do not eliminate HIV infection.

Antiretrovirals (ARVs): Drugs that inhibit the ability of retroviruses (such as HIV) to multiply in the body. The antiretroviral therapy recommended for HIV infection is referred to as highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which uses a combination of medications to attack HIV at different points in its life cycle.

Directorate for Child Protection (Direcţia pentru Protecţia Copilului, DPC): Child protection bodies under the supervision of county (or in the case of Bucharest, sector) councils. DPCs have primary responsibility for intervention in cases of child abuse and neglect, including investigating cases of suspected abuse or neglect, and providing services to the child and his or her family.

Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: An independent public-private partnership established in 2001, and the largest global fund in the health domain. It works to attract, manage and disburse additional resources to make a sustainable and significant contribution to mitigate the impact caused by HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria in countries in need, while contributing to poverty reduction as part of the Millennium Development Goals.

HIV: The human immunodeficiency virus. HIV destroys the body’s ability to fight off infection and disease, ultimately leading to AIDS.

HIV-negative: Showing no evidence of infection with HIV (e.g. absence of antibodies against HIV) in a blood or tissue test. An HIV-negative person can be infected if he or she is in the window period between HIV exposure and detection of antibodies.

HIV-positive: Showing indications of infection with HIV (e.g. presence of antibodies against HIV) on a test of blood or tissue. Synonymous with seropositive. Test may occasionally show false positive results.

National Authority for Persons with Handicap (Autoritatea Naţională pentru Persoanele cu Handicap, ANPH): The highest administrative body charged with addressing disability issues, including diagnosis, drafting budgets, developing and coordinating policy, and collecting statistics. In July 2003 it became part of the Ministry of Labor, Social Solidarity and Family.

National Authority for the Protection of the Rights of the Child (Autoritatea Naţională pentru Protecţia Drepturilor Copilului, ANPDC): An agency under the Ministry of Labor, Social Solidarity and Family that is mandated to coordinate and control Romania’s child rights protection and promotion activities, including monitoring implementation of the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, and Romania’s Law 272/2004 on the Protection and Promotion of the Rights of the Child.

National Committee on Fighting against AIDS (Comisia Naţională de Luptă Anti-Sida, CNLAS): An expert committee of the Ministry of Health charged with overseeing medical trends of the HIV pandemic in Romania, maintaining the national database and making medical decisions on the treatment provided nationally.  The Ministry of Health dissolved the committee in mid-2006, merging its mandate with that of the broader Ministry of Health Commission on Infectious Diseases.

National Committee for HIV/AIDS Surveillance, Control and Prevention (Comisia Naţională pentru Supravegherea, Controlul şi Prevenirea Cazurilor de Infecţie HIV/SIDA, multi-sectoral committee): An inter-ministerial, multi-sectoral body established by Law 584/2002 to monitor and coordinate HIV/AIDS policy and implementation. The commission is under the authority of the prime minister, and in addition to government agencies includes representatives from nongovernmental organizations, people living with HIV, and has as observers UN agencies, the private sector, and donors.

National Council for Combating Discrimination, (Consiliul Naţional pentru Combaterea Discriminării, CNCD): Created by government order in 2001, the National Council is responsible for implementing government anti-discrimination policies. Its powers include investigating individual cases of discrimination, issuing sanctions in cases of discrimination, and proposing affirmative actions and special measures for the protection of persons confronted with rejection and marginalization.

National Health Insurance House, (Casa Naţională de Asigurări de Sănătate, CNAS): An independent government agency charged with administering the social health insurance system, including the social health insurance fund.

Opportunistic Infections: Illnesses caused by various organisms, some of which usually do not cause disease in persons with healthy immune systems. Persons living with advanced HIV infection may suffer opportunistic infections of the lungs, brain, eyes and other organs. Opportunistic illnesses common in persons diagnosed with AIDS include Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; cryptosporidiosis; histoplasmosis; other parasitic, viral and fungal infections; and some types of cancers.

Phare: One of the three pre-accession instruments financed by the European Union to assist the applicant countries of Central and Eastern Europe in their preparations for joining the European Union. Phare programs aim to strengthen public administration and institutions, promote convergence with the European Union’s extensive legislation, and promote economic and social cohesion.

UNAIDS: The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS coordinates the UN’s global response to HIV/AIDS. UNAIDS is sponsored by ten UN agencies: the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the World Food Programme (WFP), the UN Development Programme (UNDP), the UN Population Fund (UNFPA), the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC), the International Labour Organization,(ILO), the UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), the World Health Organization (WHO), and the World Bank.

Universal Precautions: Standard infection control practices to be used universally in healthcare settings to minimize the risk of exposure to pathogens, e.g. the use of gloves, barrier clothing, masks and goggles (when anticipating splatter) to prevent exposure to tissue, blood and body fluids.

[1] This glossary draws on a number of sources, including the May 2006 UNAIDS Editors’ Notes for authors, [online]

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