This report was written by Ali Dayan Hasan, South Asia researcher at Human Rights Watch, based on his research in Azad Kashmir and Pakistan conducted from 2004 to August 2006. Additional research was conducted by telephone, email and in meetings with NGOs and officials in Islamabad, Washington D.C., London and elsewhere. Brad Adams, executive director of the Asia Division and Ian Gorvin, consultant in the Program office, at Human Rights Watch edited the report. Jim Ross, senior legal advisor, provided legal review. South Asia researchers Meenakshi Ganguly and Asia advocacy director Veena Siddharth reviewed and commented on the report. Andrea Cottom provided production assistance along with Jonathan Cohen, Fitzroy Hepkins, Andrea Holley, Jose Martinez and Jo-Anne Prud’homme. Ayesha Salma Karriapar and Hena Khursheed provided research assistance.

Human Rights Watch would like to thank the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan and HRCP chairperson Asma Jahangir for their generous assistance. Human Rights Watch would also like to thank the following people and organizations: Teresita Schaffer, CSIS; Chris Fair, United States Institute of Peace; Charu Lata Hogg, Chatham House; and Najm-ul-Sahr Ata-ullah. We also thank the many journalists, government officials, lawyers, diplomats and NGO workers who provided invaluable assistance but would prefer to remain anonymous.

We also acknowledge with appreciation the support of Cordaid.

Above all, we would like to express our gratitude to the many Kashmiri men and women in Azad Kashmir who spoke with us, recounting their personal experiences of hardship and violence, often at great personal risk.