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ANSO: Afghanistan Nongovernmental Organization Safety Office, which monitors security incidents that affect the operations of nongovernmental organizations.

Afghani: The currency of Afghanistan. The afghani traded at various levels in 2005-2006: one U.S. dollar bought between45 and 50 afghanis.

burqa and chadori: Terms used interchangeably in many parts of Afghanistan to describe a head-to-toe garment worn by women that completely covers the body and face, allowing vision through a mesh screen.

Dari: The dialect of Persian spoken in Afghanistan, one of Afghanistan’s main languages.

hijab: Generally, dress for women that conforms to Islamic standards, varying among countries and cultures; usually includes covering the hair and obscuring the shape of the body.

ISAF: International Security Assistance Force provided by the North Atlantic Treaty Organization under mandate of the United Nations.

mujahedin: “Those who engage in jihad.” By common usage in Afghanistan, and as used in this report, the term refers to the forces that fought successive Soviet-backed governments from 1978 until 1992, although many former mujahedin parties continue to use it in reference to themselves.

night letters (“Shabnameh”): Letters left in homes or public places, such as roadsides and mosques, threatening individuals or communities for engaging in certain activities. Letters may be anonymous or signed, and may warn against activities such as working with the government or with foreigners, or sending children, often girls in particular, to school.

Pashto: The primary language spoken by many Pashtuns.

Pashtun: The largest ethnicity in Afghanistan and a plurality of the population (Pashtuns also reside in Pakistan).

PRTs: Provincial Reconstruction Teams, military units ranging in size from eighty to several hundred, with a small civilian development component. Each PRT is fielded by a donor country as part of NATO or the U.S.-led Coalition forces. The make up and function of the PRTs differ based on the donor country, the mission of the PRT, and the location.

shura: “Council.” The shuras mentioned in this report include both governmental and nongovernmental bodies.

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