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Copyright © 2004 by Human Rights Watch.

All rights reserved.

Printed in the United States of America

ISBN: 1564322963

Cover photo: © 2001, Norbert Schiller

Cover design by Rafael Jimenez

Human Rights Watch

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Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

We stand with victims and activists to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom, to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime, and to bring offenders to justice.

We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable.

We challenge governments and those who hold power to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law.

We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.


Human Rights Watch conducts regular, systematic investigations of human rights abuses in some seventy countries around the world. Our reputation for timely, reliable disclosures has made us an essential source of information for those concerned with human rights. We address the human rights practices of governments of all political stripes, of all geopolitical alignments, and of all ethnic and religious persuasions. Human Rights Watch defends freedom of thought and expression, due process and equal protection of the law, and a vigorous civil society; we document and denounce murders, disappearances, torture, arbitrary imprisonment, discrimination, and other abuses of internationally recognized human rights. Our goal is to hold governments accountable if they transgress the rights of their people.

Human Rights Watch began in 1978 with the founding of its Europe and Central Asia division (then known as Helsinki Watch). Today, it also includes divisions covering Africa, the Americas, Asia, and the Middle East. In addition, it includes three thematic divisions on arms, children’s rights, and women’s rights. It maintains offices in Brussels, Geneva, London, Los Angeles, Moscow, New York, San Francisco, Tashkent and Washington. Human Rights Watch is an independent, nongovernmental organization, supported by contributions from private individuals and foundations worldwide. It accepts no government funds, directly or indirectly.

The staff includes Kenneth Roth, executive director; Allison Adoradio, operations director, Michele Alexander, development director; Carroll Bogert, associate director; Steve Crawshaw, London office director, Barbara Guglielmo, finance director; Lotte Leicht, Brussels office director; Iain Levine, program director; Rory Mungoven, advocacy director; Maria Pignataro Nielsen, human resources director; Dinah PoKempner, General Counsel, Wilder Tayler, legal and policy director; and Joanna Weschler, United Nations representative.

The regional division directors of Human Rights Watch are Peter Takirambudde, Africa; José Miguel Vivanco, Americas; Brad Adams, Asia; Rachel Denber (acting), Europe and Central Asia; Joe Stork (acting), Middle East and North Africa. The thematic division directors are Steve Goose, Arms; Lois Whitman, Children’s Rights; and LaShawn R. Jefferson, Women’s Rights. The program directors are Arvind Ganesan, Business and Human Rights; Joanne Csete, HIV/AIDS and Human Rights; Richard Dicker, International Justice; and Jamie Fellner, U.S. Program.

The members of the board of directors are Jane Olson, Chair; Khaled Abou El Fadl, Lisa Anderson, Lloyd Axworthy, David M. Brown, William D. Carmichael, Jorge Castañeda, Dorothy Cullman, Edith Everett, Jonathan F. Fanton (chair, 1998-2003), Michael E. Gellert, Richard Goldstone, Vartan Gregorian, James F. Hoge, Jr., Stephen L. Kass, Marina Pinto Kaufman, Wendy Keys, Robert Kissane, Bruce J. Klatsky, Joanne Leedom-Ackerman, Josh Mailman, Kati Marton, Barry Meyer, Joel Motley, Samuel K. Murumba, Peter Osnos, Kathleen Peratis, Catherine Powell, Sigrid Rausing, Victoria Riskin, Orville Schell, Sid Sheinberg, Gary G. Sick, Domna Stanton, John J. Studzinski, Shibley Telhami, and Maya Wiley. Emeritus Board: Roland Algrant, Robert L. Bernstein (Founding Chair 1978-97), Adrian W. DeWind, Alice H. Henkin, Bruce Rabb, and Malcolm B. Smith.

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March 2004