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Janet Walsh, deputy director of the Women's Rights Division, wrote this report, which is based on research conducted by Janet Walsh and LaShawn R. Jefferson, executive director of the Women's Rights Division. Joanne Csete, director of the HIV/AIDS and Human Rights Program; Peter Takirambudde, executive director of the Africa Division; LaShawn R. Jefferson; and Joseph Saunders, deputy director of the Program Office, edited the report. James Ross, senior legal advisor, provided legal review. Natalie Rainer, Katherine Bowman, Patrick Minges, and Fitzroy Hepkins provided production assistance.

Many individuals and organizations helped to make this research possible. Our thanks for generous help in the field goes to many nongovernmental organizations and U.N. bodies, including the Centre for the Rehabilitation and Education of Abused Women, Education Centre for Women in Democracy, Coalition on Violence against Women, GROOTS Kenya, Society of Women against AIDS in Kenya, Women's Rights Awareness Programme, Catholic Justice and Peace Commission, Muslim Sisters Network, Springs Ministry, St. Rita Women's Group, Kenya Land Alliance, International Technology Development Group, Kenya Human Rights Commission, Collaborative Centre for Gender and Development, Green Belt Movement, International Federation of Women Lawyers-Kenya Chapter, Urban Harvest, Mazingira Institute, FEMNET, International Commission of Jurists-Kenya, Kituo Cha Sheria, Pamoja Trust, Shelter Forum, UN-Habitat, UNIFEM, and UNAIDS. We also wish to thank a number of individual lawyers, academics, and experts in Kenya, including Patricia Kameri-Mbote, Winnie Mitullah, Martha Koome, Martha Karua, Jane Michuki, Akinyi Nzioki, Nicky Nzioki, Betty Murungi, Pauline Nyamweya, Nazlin Rajput, A.D.O. Rachier, and Kamau Mu'buu.

For logistical assistance in the field, we thank especially Catherine Muthoni. We also wish to thank Jessica Thorpe, Adela Mall, and Ann Strimov for research and logistical assistance.

Most of all, Human Rights Watch wishes to thank all the individuals in Kenya who agreed to be interviewed for this report. Their candor made this report possible.

We also acknowledge with gratitude the financial support of Kathleen Peratis and Richard Frank, the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, the Ford Foundation, the Moriah Fund, the Oak Foundation, the Streisand Foundation, the Dobkin Family Foundation, and the members of the Advisory Committee of the Women's Rights Division.

Human Rights Watch
Women's Rights Division

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

We stand with victims and activists to bring offenders to justice, to prevent discrimination, to uphold
political freedom and to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime.

We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable.

We challenge governments and those holding power to end abusive practices and respect international
human rights law.

We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.

      The staff includes Kenneth Roth, executive director; Michele Alexander, development director; Rory Mungoven, advocacy director; Carroll Bogert, communications director; John T. Green, operations director, Barbara Guglielmo, finance director; Lotte Leicht, Brussels office director; Patrick Minges, publications director; Maria Pignataro Nielsen, human resources director; Joe Saunders, interim program director; Wilder Tayler, legal and policy director; and Joanna Weschler, United Nations representative. Jonathan Fanton is the chair of the board. Robert L. Bernstein is the founding chair.

Its Women's Rights Division was established in 1990 to document and report on state-sponsored and state-tolerated violence and discrimination against women in various regions of the world. LaShawn R. Jefferson is the executive director, Janet Walsh is the deputy director, Nisha Varia is the Asia researcher, Lisa Karanja is the Orville Schell Fellow, and Natalie Rainer and Katherine Bowman are the associates.

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