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This report was researched by Marie Struthers, a consultant to Human Rights Watch, and Joanne Csete, director of the HIV/AIDS and Human Rights Program. Its primary author is Marie Struthers; some text was written by Joanne Csete, who also edited the report. The report was also edited by Rachel Denber, deputy director of the Europe and Central Asia Division; Dinah PoKempner, general counsel; and Widney Brown, deputy program director.

We thank those who agreed to share their stories with us in Kazakhstan, many of whom are acknowledged by name in this report.

We are grateful to the Central Eurasia Program and the International Harm Reduction Development (IHRD) Program of the Open Society Institute for the financial support that made this work possible. We also thank IHRD Program staff for technical assistance and advice in the course of the work.

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