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This report was researched and written by Fred Abrahams, a consultant for Human Rights Watch. Research assistance was provided by `AliUthman and Abd al-Razzaq al-Sa`di. The report was edited by Joe Stork, acting Executive Director of Human Rights Watch’s Middle East and North Africa division, Wilder Taylor, Legal and Policy Director of Human Rights Watch, and Widney Brown, Deputy Program Director of Human Rights Watch. Leila Hull and Mohamed Abdel Dayem, associates in the Middle East and North Africa division, provided research assistance. Veronica Matushaj, Photo Editor and Associate Director of Creative Services, prepared the photographs and Leila Hull and Mohamed Abdel Dayem prepared the report for publication. The data was analyzed and graphs produced by Jana Asher, M.S., a statistician affiliated with Carnegie Mellon University.

Human Rights Watch would like to thank all the individuals in Baghdad who provided information or testimony for this report. Thanks also go to the Iraqi police and the Human Rights Organization in Iraq for providing data, as well as Marla Ruzicka of CIVIC, Faiez Ali Salem, and Muhammad Jabber al-Doori. We would also like to thank ACT Netherlands, J.M. Kaplan Fund, Stichting Novib, John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation, Oak Foundation, David and Lucile Packard Foundation, the Rockefeller Brothers Fund, and the many individuals who contributed to Human Rights Watch's Iraq emergency fund.

Human Rights Watch

Middle East and North Africa Division

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

We stand with victims and activists to bring offenders to justice, to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom and to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime.

We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable.

We challenge governments and those holding power to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law.

We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.

The staff includes Kenneth Roth, executive director; Michele Alexander, development director; Rory Mungoven, advocacy director; Carroll Bogert, associate director; Barbara Guglielmo, finance director; Lotte Leicht, Brussels office director; Steve Crawshaw, London office director; Maria Pignataro Nielsen, human resources director; Iain Levine, program director; Wilder Tayler, legal and policy director; and Joanna Weschler, United Nations representative. Jonathan Fanton is the chair of the board. Robert L. Bernstein is the founding chair.

Its Middle East and North Africa division was established in 1989 to monitor and promote the observance of internationally recognized human rights in the Middle East and North Africa. Eric Goldstein and Virginia Sherry are the associate directors and Joe Stork is the advocacy director. Lisa Anderson and Gary Sick are co-chairs of the advisory committee and Bruce Rabb is the vice chair.

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October 2003