The Ethiopian government has dismissed criticism of the violations of academic freedom documented in this report-the use of lethal force to repress student demonstrations, widespread arbitrary arrests of students and educators, the banning of the country's foremost academic association, and the cultivation of a climate of self-censorship on campus-with the claim that academics are entitled to the same rights as all other Ethiopian citizens. Unfortunately, the claim is largely true: the government systematically violates basic rights of its citizens and its treatment of academics is just one manifestation of this broader problem. To the extent that the government's claim is based on the premise that university life and continuing attacks on professors, educators, researchers, and students are of no particular significance in Ethiopian society, however, it is mistaken. The rights to education and to academic freedom are valuable not only in their own right but also because they facilitate the recognition and fulfillment of other rights, including civil, political, economic, social, and cultural rights essential to Ethiopia's future. Remedying the abuses detailed in this report should be an integral part of efforts to bring Ethiopian government practices into compliance with international standards.